Chemistry Guided Notes:
Compounds
 __________________ that are composed of two or more atoms that are
_____________________.
 Can only be changed into simpler substances called elements by chemical changes.
Mixtures
 Composed of two or more different substances that retain
____________________________________ and are combined physically
(mixed together).
 Can be separated by ________________ (filtration, sifting, or _____________).
 May be heterogeneous or homogeneous.
o In a _____________________, which is not uniform throughout, the
component substances can be visibly distinguished.
o In a _______________________, which is uniform throughout, the
substances are evenly mixed and cannot be visibly distinguished. The
particles of the substances are so small that
__________________________.
 Another name for a homogeneous mixture is a _____________.
 Examples:
Chemical formulas
 Use __________________ from the periodic table and numerical ___________
to depict the name and number of atoms of each element in the compound
o Examples:


The numbers as ______________ show how many of each kind of atom are in the
compound. It is written to the _________________ of the element symbol.
If no subscript is written, ______________ atom of that element is part of the
compound.
o Example:

N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, and H2 are _____________________ where all of the
atoms of the molecule are the same element.
Ionic Bonds
 Formed when _______________ and ________________ chemically bond to
form a new substance.
 ______________ are transferred from the metals to the nonmetals.
Covalent Bonds
 Formed when nonmetals bond with ____________________
 Electrons are _______________
Physical and Chemical Properties:
 Can be used to classify and identify substances.
 _________________ and _________________ are two major groups of
elements that have different physical properties.
Physical properties of metals include:
 ___________________—Having a shiny surface or reflecting light brightly
 ___________________—Heat and electricity move through them easily
 ___________________—Ability to be hammered into different shapes
 ___________________—Ability to be drawn into a wire
 ___________________—Heavy for their size
Physical properties of nonmetals include:
 _____________—Not shiny
 ___________________—Heat and electricity do not move through them easily
 _____________—Break or shatter easily (solids)
Physical properties:
 Can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied.
 ________________________
o The temperature at which a solid can change to a liquid
o Unchanging under constant conditions
 Example:

______________________
o The temperature at which a liquid changes from a liquid to a gas.
o _______________ begins when bubbles form throughout, grow larger, rise
to the surface, and burst.
o As long as the substance is _________________the temperature of the
liquid remains constant (at the ________________).
o

Density
o The relationship between the __________ of a material and its _________
o Substances that are _____________ contain more matter in a given
volume.
o The density of a substance is _____________________ no matter how
large or small the sample of the substance.
o Example:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

_____________________ is unchanging under constant conditions for a
given substance.
 Example:
Generally, metals have a ________________ density than nonmetals.
Density is the _________ of a substance per unit of ___________.
Density of a substance changes with _____________________ due to the
difference in the particle arrangement in solids, liquids and gasses.
The volume and density of a particular substance is dependent upon its
_______________________________________.
It is calculated using the formula:
Volume
 Measured in _______________________
 Can be calculated using basic math formulas or the
________________________________
Mass
 Measured in _____________
The composition of a substance does not change when one measures mass
and volume.
 Example: If the mass of an object is 20 grams and the volume of the
same object is 10 mL, what is the density of the object?
________________________
o The ability to act as an electrical conductor or an electrical insulator is
based on the solid’s ability to complete an electric circuit, i.e., conduct
electricity.
o Materials with high conductivity are called electrical
__________________ because they allow current to flow easily.
o Materials with low conductivity are called electrical __________________
because they do not allow current to flow.




Example: Most metals are electrical ________________ while
nonmetals are electrical _________________.
__________________
o Can be used to help identify a substance, along with other properties.
o By itself, it is not a significant identifier of a substance.
o Absence of ________________ is also a physical property.
__________________
o The relative resistance of a metal or other material to denting, scratching,
or bending.
__________________
o The property of reacting to the forces exerted by magnets
____________________________
 Can be recognized only when substances react or do not react chemically with
one another, that is, when they undergo a change in composition.
 Can be used to help identify a substance
 Ability to burn
o Involves a substance reacting quickly with ______________ to produce
light and heat.

Ability to rust
o Involves a substance reacting _____________with oxygen. The process is
called rusting.
Memorize the following:
Element
Hydrogen
Symbol
Element
C
Copper
Nitrogen
Symbol
Si
Al
O
Silver
Chlorine
Au
Mg
Iron
Zinc
He
Ca
Potassium
Phosphorus
Na
I
Fluorine
Chemical Formula
Chemical Name
NaCl
Type of Bond
Ionic
Water
C6H12O6
Oxygen Gas
Covalent
Covalent
Nitrogen Gas
Covalent
CO2
Fe2O3