Extract minerals – like iron (Fe) to make
1. Why is it important to have a basic
understanding of the rock cycle?
Rocks contain clues about the environment.
Helps us understand the formation of the earth.
2. Rock
Any solid mass of minerals or mineral-like matter
3. Do most rocks occur as one
mineral or as a mixture of minerals?
4. Some rocks are made of nonmineral material, can you name one?
Coal - begins as layers of plant matter accumulate at the
bottom of a body of water. For the process to continue the
plant matter must be protected from biodegradation and
oxidization, usually by mud or acidic water. This trapped
atmospheric carbon in the ground in immense peat bogs that
eventually were covered over and deeply buried by
sediments under which they metamorphosed into coal. Over
time, the chemical and physical properties of the plant
remains (believed to mainly have been fern-like species
antedating more modern plant and tree species) were
changed by geological action to create a solid material.
Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the
generation of electricity worldwide.
5. Explain the rock cycle.
A continuous process that causes rock to change
from one form to another
The Rock Cycle is a group of changes, this change does not necessarily have to be
a chemical change.
Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock.
Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock.
Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock.
Almost all of rock today that we have on earth is made up of all the same stuff as
the rocks that dinosaurs and other ancient life forms walked, crawled, or swam
While the stuff that rocks are made of has stayed the same, the rocks themselves,
have not
Over time rocks are recycled into other rocks
Moving tectonic plates are responsible for destroying and forming many types of
6. List the 3 types of rocks
7. Igneous Rocks
Igneous rock forms when magma
cools and makes crystals.
Magma is a hot liquid made of
melted minerals. When magma
pours onto the earth’s surface it
is called lava. The minerals can
form crystals when they cool.
Igneous rock can form
underground, where the magma
cools slowly. Or, igneous rock can
form above ground, where the
magma cools quickly.
The crystals grow together and
form one igneous rocks.
8. What kind of igneous rocks form
when molten lava cools and hardens?
Extrusive = forced out while
molten through cracks in the
earth's surface
9. What is the Latin word that the word
igneous comes from and what does it
ignis = fire
10. Intrusive Igneous Rocks
Form from magma below the earth’s surface
11. Extrusive Igneous Rocks
Formed by lava on the Earth’s surface
12. What is the difference
between magma and lava?
Magma = molten rock
below the earth’s
Lava = molten rock
flowing on the earth’s
13. What are the 8 elements that
make up magma?
Silicon, oxygen, aluminum,
iron, calcium, sodium,
potassium, magnesium
Look at the granite rock (A on age 71) and the rhyolite rock (B on page 71)
14. In what ways are the two rocks similar?
Both are from melted rock
Their composition is the same
15. In what ways are the two rocks different?
Granite – coarse texture, made from magma
Rhyolite – fine texture, made from lava
16. What causes the two rocks to be different?
Granite – Slow cooling below the earth’s surface
Rhyolite – Quick cooling on the earth’s surface
17. Why do you think some rocks are
heavier than others?
Some are denser – less air space between particles
Which rock would have greater density?
Classifying Rocks
Rocks can be
classified, or put into
groups with similar
characteristics, by
looking at the rocks
texture, mineral
composition, and
18. What is texture?
The size, shape, and pattern of the rock’s grain
19. Composition (what’s it made of?)
The minerals that make up the
different parts of a rock
Rock Color
The apparent
color of the rock,
on the inside and
the outside
20. Slow cooling magma will form
rocks with a
a. coarse grained texture.
b. fine grained texture.
c. glassy texture.
d. porphyritic texture.
21. Rapid cooling magma will form
rocks with a
a. coarse grained texture.
b. fine grained texture.
c. glassy texture.
d. porphyritic texture.
22. When lava spews onto the earth’s
surface rocks will form with a
a. coarse grained texture.
b. fine grained texture.
c. glassy texture.
d. porphyritic texture.
23. Magma that is located deep
within the earth may take tens of
thousands of years to harden.
The rocks that form in this case
will have a
a. coarse grained texture.
b. fine grained texture.
c. glassy texture.
d. porphyritic texture.
24. Which 2 minerals are granitic
rocks composed of?
25. Which 2 minerals are basaltic
rocks composed of?
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that
have "morphed" into another kind
of rock.
These rocks were once igneous
or sedimentary rocks.
How do sedimentary and igneous
rocks change?
The rocks are under tons and
tons of pressure, which fosters
heat build up, and this causes
them to change.
If you exam metamorphic rock
samples closely, you'll discover
how flattened some of the grains
in the rock are.
Rock divisions occur in three
major families based on how they
formed: igneous, sedimentary,
and metamorphic.
Each group contains a collection
of rock types that differ from each
other on the basis of the size,
shape, and arrangement of
mineral grains.
Just remember 3 types of rocks=3
divisions. (igneous, sedimentary,
and metamorphic)
When classifying a rock sample geologists
observe the rock’s color and texture and
determine its mineral composition.
Texture: the size, shape, and pattern of the
rock’s grain.
Color: the apparent color of the rock, on the
inside and the outside.
Mineral composition: The minerals that make
up the different parts of a rock.
Texture: Grain Size
Often, the grains in a rock are
large and easy to see.
Such rocks are said to be
coarse-grained. In other rocks,
the grains are so small that
they can only be seen with a
These rocks are said to be
Notice the difference in texture
between the fine-grained slate
and the coarse-grained diorite
to the right.
Texture: Grain Shape
The grains in a rock vary widely in shape
Some grains look like tiny particles of fine sand
Others look like small seeds or exploding stars
In some rocks, such as granite, the grain results from the
shapes of the crystals that form the rock
• In other rocks, the grain shape results from fragments of
other rock
• These fragments can be smooth and rounded, like the
fragments in conglomerate, or they can be jagged, like
the fragments in breccia
• You can compare conglomerate and breccia one the
next slide
Texture : Grain Pattern
• The grains in a rock often form patterns.
Some grains lie in flat layers that look like
a stack of pancakes.
• Other grains form wavy, swirling patterns.
Some rocks have grains that look like rows
of multicolored beads, as in the sample of
gneiss shown above.
• Other rocks, in contrast, have grains that
occur randomly throughout the rock.
Different Types of Texture
Fine-Grained, Coarse-Grained, Rounded Grain, Jagged Grain,
Nonbanded, Banded
2 Types of Igneous Rocks
rocks are formed by magma that cools
BENEATH Earth’s surface, they are called
intrusive igneous rocks
rocks are formed by LAVA ON Earth’s surface,
they are called extrusive igneous rocks
• The process by which sediment becomes
sedimentary rock
• 1st step : erosion
• 2nd step : deposition
• 3rd step : compaction
• 4th step : cementation
Sedimentary Rocks : Erosion
Destructive forces are
constantly breaking up and
wearing away all the rocks
on Earth’s surface
The forces include heat and
cold, rain, waves, and
grinding ice
Erosion occurs when
running water or wind
loosens and carry away the
fragments of rock.
Sedimentary Rocks: Deposition
Eventually, the moving water or wind
slows and deposits the sediment.
If water is carrying the sediment, rock
fragments and other materials sink to the
bottom of a lake or ocean.
Deposition is the process by which
sediment settles out of the water or wind
carrying it.
After sediment has been deposited, the
processes of compaction and
cementation change the sediment into
sedimentary rock.
In addition to particles of rock, sediment
may include shells, bones, leaves, stems,
and other remains of living things.
Over time, any remains of living things in
the sediment may slowly harden and
change into fossils trapped in the rock.
Sedimentary Rocks: Compaction
At first the sediments fit together
loosely. But gradually, over
millions of years, thick layers of
sediment build up.
These layers are heavy and press
down on the layers beneath them.
Then compaction occurs.
Compaction is the process that
presses sediments together.
Year after year more sediment
falls on top, creating new layers.
The weight of the layers further
compacts the sediments,
squeezing them tightly together.
The layers often remain visible in
the sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary Rocks: Cementation
While compaction is taking place, the minerals in
the rock slowly dissolve in the water.
The dissolved minerals seep into the spaces
between particles of sediment.
Cementation is the process in which dissolved
minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment
It often takes millions of years for compaction and
cementation to transform loose sediments into solid
sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary Transformations
Point A: water or wind deposits sediments
Point B: The heavy sediments press down on
the layers beneath
Point C: Dissolved minerals flow between the
particles and cement them together
Metamorphic Rock Pictures
Granite, Gneiss, Shale, Slate, Sandstone, and Quartzite are good
examples of metamorphic rocks.
Bet Cha’ Weren’t Expecting A….
POP QUIZ!!!!!*
1. What are the three types of rock?
2. Which type of rock has been formed by
magma or lava?
3. What do we classify rocks by?
4. How do sedimentary rocks form (in order)?
5. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have
?(fill in the blank)
6. What is the process of sediments forming a
sedimentary rock?
7. What does “ignis” mean in the word igneous?
*Answers are on next slide!
Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic
Texture, Color, and Mineral Composition
Erosion, Deposition, Compaction,
5. Morphed
6. Lithification
7. “ignis” means fire
Earth Science Textbook
Sedimentary rocks form from
particles deposited by water and
If you have ever walked along a
beach (which I am sure you have)
you may have noticed tiny sand
grains, mud, and pebbles.
These are some sediments that
eventually form into sedimentary
Sedimentary Rocks can form in 4
ways by:

Rocks and the Rock Cycle powerpoint