Urbanization Migration to the Cities Learning Targets • Describe how people moved from one place to another in big cities in the late 1800s. • Know what enabled the middle class to move to “streetcar suburbs”. • Know how political machines operated and give an example. • Be able to describe the problems of urban living in the late 1800s and their causes. Urbanization • Post-Civil War (those living in towns of 2,500+) – 1870: 10 million – 1900: 30 million • New York: – 1860: 800,000 population – 1900: 3,500,000 population (an increase of 77%) • Chicago: – 1860: 109,000 – 1900: 1,600,000 (an increase of 93%) •Many, but not all, were immigrants. A New City Environment • Skyscrapers • Mass Transit A New City Environment • Subways – As city streets became more and more congested, city planners looked for alternatives to moving people from place to place – Boston built the 1st subway systems, then New York – Chicago built elevated trains Class Development • High Society – The rich could build a feudal castle, English manor, a French chateau, a Tuscan villa, Persian Pavillion right in the middle of the city • Middle Class – Mass transit allowed the middle class to move to the suburbs • The Working Class – tenements Problems • Crime, violence, fire, diseases, pollution – 1880: Murder rate—25 per million people – 1900: Murder rate—100 per million people – 1997: Murder rate—57 per million people Political Corruption • Political Machines: informal political group designed to gain and keep power • Party Bosses: ran the political machines • Fraud and Graft: getting money through dishonest or questionable means • Tammany Hall and William M. “Boss” Tweed Review Questions • How did people move from one place to another in big cities in the late 1800s? • What enabled the middle class to move to “streetcar suburbs”? • How did political machines operate? Give an example. Essay Question and Answer: • Be able to describe the problems of urban living in the late 1800s and their causes. – Crime and violence, fire, disease, and pollution posed threats to city dwellers. The rapid growth of cities made these problems worse, Pickpockets, swindlers, and thieves thrived in crowded urban living conditions. Major crimes such as murder living conditions. Major crimes such as murder increased as well. Alcohol contributed to violent crime, both inside and outside the home. Improper sewage disposal contaminated city drinking water and triggered epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera. Pollution resulted from horse waste that fell in the streets, smoke belching from chimneys, and soot and ash from coal and wood fires.