Ch 5 Sec 1
Dawn of the Industrial Age
Define “Revolution” - __________________________
Play “revolution by John Lennon
Definition -a sudden, radical, or complete change
During the late 1700s social revolutions occurred in
the United States and in France.
During the 1800s, from 1750-1850, a different type
of revolution occurred in Britain.
http://www.history.com/videos/the-industrial-revolition#the-industrial-revolition
Show as a intro to IR
You say you want a revolution
Well you know
We'd all want to change the world
You tell me that it's evolution
Well you know
We'd all want to change the world
But when you talk about destruction
Don't you know that you can count me
out
Don't you know it's gonna be alright
[x3]
Don't you know it's gonna be alright [x4]
You say you'll change the constitution
Well you know We'd all love to change your
head
You tell me it's the institution
Well you know
You better free your mind instead
But if you go carrying pictures of Chairman
Mao You ain't going to make it with anyone
Anyhow
Don't you know know it's gonna be alright
You say you got a real solution
Well you know
We'd all want to see the plan
You ask me for a contribution
Well you know We're all doing what we can
But if you want money for people with
minds that hate
All I can tell you is brother you'll have to
wait
In general Life in the Europe
during the 1750s
• People lived on small cottages
• Used hand made tools for farming
• Used candles and fireplaces
• Made their own clothes
• Grew their own food
• Stayed within their own communities
• Had to walk everywhere or use horse drawn
wagons
Don’t need to write down
Life Changes as Industry Spreads
• In the mid-1700s, production of food & goods
began to be made easier by complex machines.
• This process of industrialization was slow at first,
but eventually led to the growth of cities and the
end of a rural way of life.
Agriculture Spurs Industry
• The Industrial Revolution began with
improvements in farming.
• Rich landowners began to enclose large farms, and
farm laborers were pushed out of work.
• Populations in Europe soared because of the food
surplus and improved sanitation and medical care.
• Site examples from pg 171- (2-3)_______________
I. Agricultural Revolution 1st
A. Farming methods improved
1. Create better soil; seed drill
2. Crop rotation
a. switch crops each year
B. Enclosures
a. large farms closed in to
create smaller farms
Write all this
How many people were there?
How did people get around?
(don’t write, just read)
‘We set out at six in the morning and didn’t get out of the
carriages (except when we overturned or got stuck in the
mud) for 14 hours. We had nothing to eat and passed
through some of the worst roads I ever saw in my life’
This is a description
of a journey by
Queen Anne in 1704
from Windsor to
Petworth – a journey
of 40 miles. What
does it tell us about
transport at the time?
45
Journey times from
London (in hours)
40
35
30
25
Coach
Train
20
15
10
5
0
Edinburgh
Exeter
Brighton
How did people make money?
(don’t write)
• 8 out of 10 worked in countryside
• Subsistence farming
• Cottage industries - factories rarely
employed more than 50 people
• Handmade – buttons, needles, cloth,
bricks, pottery, bread etc.
• Developing towns – Liverpool,
Birmingham, Glasgow
How many objects do you
have about you or can you
see in the room that are
handmade?
Welsh spinsters
Inventions
• Eli Whitney – Cotton gin
• Elias Howe – Sewing Machine
• Robert Fulton – Steam Boat
• Francis Cabot Lowell and Samuel Slater –
Assembly lines and factories
Show Ford assembly line clip
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWjTWlHnYfE&li
st=PLG41HV5r0aEKYd6yd6R6GUSb2ksZJnwix&index=
15&feature=plpp_video
The Enclosure
Movement
The geographic
advantage for England
was that it had many
natural harbors (BM ?)
How many cities are
located on a harbor?
Who lost their land?
Where did they go?
What would you do if
the government
passed a law forcing
you off your land?
Yorkshire Dales National Park, in Yorkshire, England.
“Enclosed” Lands Today
Positive and Negative effects of Enclosures:
• POSITIVE
– Increase food supply
– Increased profits because farmers didn’t need as many
workers (land was smaller)
– Produced more food w/ less workers (BM ?)
Write the above
• NEGATIVE
– Many farmers lost their jobs (land was smaller)
– Many moved from the country to cities in search of jobs
Use pages 170-173 & notes
to fill in the blanks
Causes of the
Industrial
Revolution
Agricultural revolution
Growing Labor force
New Technologies
Farming methods____
Jobless farmworkers
migrate to ________
New sources of energy
such as ___ & ____
emerge
Enclosed land ____
farm out put
The quality of ____
improves
Food surplus leads to
_______
Industrial
Revolution
Happens
Causes of the
Industrial Revolution
Agricultural revolution
Farming methods
improve
Enclosed land raises
farm out put
Growing Labor force
New Technologies
Jobless farmworkers
migrate to cities
New sources of energy
such as steam& coal
emerge
The quality of iron
improves
Food surplus leads to
population increase
Industrial
Revolution
Happens
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Improved
Raises
Population increased
Cities
Steam & coal or vise versa
Iron
New Technology Becomes Key
• In the 1700s, new sources of energy were
developed.
• Coal powered the steam engine, which, in turn,
powered everything from trains to ships.
• The intense heat of coal also allowed for improved iron
production, which further benefited the new railroad industry.
Advantage of RR over a canal is that it didn’t have to follow
the rivers (BM?)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aO3AW0JAHmU&list=PLG41HV5r0aEKYd6yd6R6GUSb2ksZJnwix&ind
ex=2&feature=plpp_video
I. James Watt’s Steam Engine
A. Steam: better
source of power
B. Units of Power
named in his
honor
1. watts
How did Watt
improve the
steam engine?
Created a more
efficient steam
engine (BM? )
A steam engine built to James Watt's patent in 1848 at Freiberg Germany
INDUSTRIALIZATION:
Factory/machine made goods
Predict:
Positives ?
Negatives ?
http://www.history.com/videos
/the-industrial-revolition#theindustrial-revolition
http://videos.howstuffworks.c
om/hsw/12325-the-industrialrevolution-machines-andfactories-video.htm
Factory Production
o
Concentrates production in one place
[materials, labor]
o
Located near sources of power
[rather than labor or markets]
o
Requires a lot of capital investment
[factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor.
o
Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
Factory
System
 Rigid schedule.
http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/12326-theindustrial-revolution-factory-work-video.htm
 12-14 hour day.
 Dangerous conditions.
 Mind-numbing monotony.
Why England 1st?
A. Economics
1. New Markets in “New World” brings in $
2. Businesses invest in machinery
3. Banks offer loans to merchants who
invest in new industries
B. Geography
1. Natural Harbors (BM?) advantage for England, rivers
a. make TRANSPORTATION easy
2. Natural resources
a. Coal and iron
Early Canals
Britain’s Earliest
Transportation
Infrastructure
Metals, Woolens, &
Canals
RR’s didn’t have to
follow the course of a
river so it was an
improvement over a
Canal (BM ?)
Mine & Forge [1840-1880]
 More powerful than water is
coal.
 More powerful than wood is
iron.
 Innovations make steel feasible.
 “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.”
 “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel.
 Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dypdoLm4Rn8&list=PLG41HV5r0aEKYd6yd6R6GUSb2ksZJn
wix&index=4&feature=plpp_video)
http://www.history.com/videos/the-industrial-revolition#history-of-the-holidays-the-storyof-labor-day
Coalfields
&
Industrial Areas
Coal Mining in Britain:
1800-1914
1800
1 ton of coal
50, 000 miners
1850
30 tons
200, 000 miners
1880
300 million tons
500, 000 miners
1914
250 million tons
1, 200, 000 miners
Entrepreneurs set up
factories not in the
t r a d i t i o n a l
populati o n centers
such as London, but
out of town, close to
water power and coal
fields and with easy
acce ss to marke t s.
West-Central England AKA
“Black Country”
Due to smoke clouds from factories burning coal and smelting iron
"Staffordshire and Warwickshire Past and Present" by
John Alfred Langford (1872).
''Dudley"', c 1832', by J. M. W. Turner
Industrial Staffordshire
Why England industrializes 1st Continued….
C. Population growth
1. Result of agricultural revolution (main reason):
TRIPLE POPULATION in Britain (BM ?)
2. Demand for goods (customers)
3. More workers
4. Growing Middle Class ($)
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Ch 5 Sec 1 Dawn of the Industrial Age