1750s- Most people worked the land using
handmade tools and lived in simple cottages.
They grew their own food.
1850s-many country villages grew into
industrial towns and cities and most people
lived where they were able to buy clothing
and food that someone else produced.
1830-1850-An American dentist first used
The first agriculture revolution was 11,000
year ago when people learned to farm. The
second one took place that greatly improved
the quality and quantity of farms products.
Jethro Tull invented a new mechanical device,
the seed drill, to aid farmers. It helped the
seeds put in rows rather then scatter them.
In the 1500s,landowners had enclosed land to
gain more pastures for sheep to increase
wool output. Many farm workers were
thrown out of work and small farmers were
forced out of their land because they couldn’t
compete with the large landowners. Villages
shrank cottagers left for work. There they
formed a growing labor force that will soon
tend the machines of industrial revolution.
Population increased because it created a surplus of food, people ate
better, people had better hygiene, sanitation, and improved medical
Rapid growth of the population was a result of the agricultural
Britain’s population soared from 5 million in the 1700’s to 9 million in the
The population of Europe as a whole shot up from roughly 120 million to
about 180 million during the same period.
In 1700’s people began to harness new sources of energy. In 1712 a British
inventor named Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine
powered by coal to pumped water out of mines. 1764 James Watt wanted
to improve the steam engine in order to make it more efficient. He
opened the door not only to operating machinery but eventually to
power locomotive and steam ships.
Coal was also a vital source of fuel in the
production of iron. The Darby family of
Coalbrookdale pioneered new methods of
producing iron. Darby's experiments let him
to produce less expensive and better-quality
iron which was used to produce parts for the
steam engine.In the decades that followed,
high-quality iron was used more and more
widely, especially after the world turned to
building railroads.

Chapter 7 Section 1 Dawn of the Industrial Revolution