 A great increase in output of machine-made goods
during the 18th century.
 Transformed the political and diplomatic landscape of
 Before largely dominated rural and handcrafted
 Revolution=technology changes, social changes, new
organization of human labor
 1700 first change in farming methods (England)
 Open field growth changed to enclosed fields
 Crop Rotation
 Stock Breading
 Small farms bought up by wealthy landowners
 Food supply increase, living conditions improve,
population increase
 No civil strife or invading of armies (French
 Relatively good and stable government
 Had factors of production (land, labor, capital)
 Presence of a large middle class
 People invested and drove to be better
 No trade taxes like continental Europe
 Rich in natural resources needed for industrialization
(water, coal, iron ore, rivers, harbors for ships)
 Modern cotton industry
 Before 4 to 5 spinners needed to keep up with one
cotton loom
 With invention of new machine to spin, the revolution
took off
 Inventors: John Kay (flying shuttle, James Hagreaves
(Spinning Jenny), Eli Whitney (Cotton wheel)
 Large machines required a factory to put them in
 Steam Engine
 Transportation
 Water, iron, coal become energy sources
 Railroad= expanded market for factories, cheap way to
transport, new jobs created, boost agriculture industry
 Automobile in U.S.
 Communication
 Alexander Graham Bell-Telephone
 Radio
 Goal: keep things running
 14hrs. / day, 6 day / week
 Dangerous working environments
 Women and children made up over half of the labor
 City growth=shift towards cities because of factories
 Living condition bad=no sanitary codes, no building
codes, lack adequate housing, education, protection.
 New class created=working class
 All men and women in mills and factories
 Class tensions due to living conditions: middle class
(professional workers live good)
 England
1860 produce 20% of industrial goods
Population increase 9 to 21 million
Took inventions to Europe
No wars going on
Highly developed transportation system
 France / Continental Europe
Gap in production due to Napoleon Wars
Much larger and fewer rivers for navigation
Need and want to adopt “Britain’s Miracle”
Belgium has high contents of iron and coal
Germany builds railroads
 United States
 Same resources as England
 Wanted fast ways to do things
 Moses Brown—created first factories
 Textile first—clothing production
 1865 end of civil war—boom of industry in northeast
 Boost in inventions—telephone, light bulb, railroad
 Wide gap between industrialized and non-
industrialized countries
 Imperialism develops=policy of extending one
countries rule over many lands
 Aggressive pursuit of foreign colonies for economic
 Settlement rather than exploration
 Successful wars and foreign conquest
 Western world break off from the rest of the world

The Industrial Revolution 1700-1800