Strategies to increase food production The Green Revolution: Punjab case study Starter What does this graph suggest about the Green Revolution? Learning Objectives • To understand how the Green Revolution increased food supply in the Punjab, India. • To be able to critically evaluate the pros and cons of the Green Revolution. What is the Green Revolution? A package of modern, western-style farming techniques used to transform agriculture in developing countries. It’s aims: • A technological fix to increase yields of staple foods, feed the world, and prove Malthus wrong. • Ending subsistence farming and replacing it with commercial farming. • Increasing self-sufficiency of LEDCs. Activity: How did the Green Revolution occur? Read the text about the development of the Green Revolution and use the words below to fill in the gaps. The Green Revolution in India Annotate/highlight your information sheet as we go through the slides. Background: • In 1943, the worst recorded food disaster occurred in India, known as the Bengal famine. • Four million people died of starvation in eastern India alone, largely due to a shortfall in food production. The Green Revolution in India Background continued: • Consequently, food security became one of the main items on ‘free’ India’s agenda. • By 1964 many farmers in India were short of food, lacked a balanced diet and had an extremely low standard of living. • The government had limited resources and decided to try to improve farm technology to overcome the crisis. Case study focus: Punjab, India Label Punjab on your map and add notes to it. • The Punjab is a state in north-western India, straddling the border between India and Pakistan. • It is known as the ‘land of the five rivers’ and thought to be one of the most fertile places in the world. Strategies to increase food supply in Punjab 1. Continued expansion of farming areas • The area of land under cultivation had been increasing since 1947, but it was not enough in meeting rising demand. Strategies to increase food supply in Punjab 2. Double-cropping existing farmland • Instead of one crop season per year, there would be two crop seasons per year. • Artificial ‘monsoon’ in the form of huge irrigation projects. Strategies to increase food supply in Punjab 3. Using seeds with superior genetics • 18,000 tonne of Mexican HYV wheat seeds were imported. • The Indian Council for Agricultural Research developed new strains of HYV seeds, mainly wheat and rice, but also millet and corn. K68 variety of wheat is most noteworthy. Strategies to increase food supply in Punjab 4. Technologies were developed • Large amounts of fertiliser were imported. • Tractors were introduced to replace water buffalo. Impacts of the Green Revolution in Punjab 1960 1970 Land irrigated by tube wells 35 70 Fertiliser application 19.7 271.3 Area under HYVs (ha) 69 169,972 Wheat yields kg/ha 1552.3 3676.3 Tractors 500 2500-5000 1. Describe the impact of the Green Revolution between 1960 and 1970. 2. Compare the experience of rich landowners compared to small farmers. Prep Evaluate the successes and failures of the Green Revolution. 1. Read the information in the table categorise the advantages/disadvantages into social, economic and environmental. 2. Use this information, classwork and pages 214-215 in your text book to answer the two exam questions.