Consciousness
Awareness
Attention
Selective Attention
Divided Attention
Dichotic Listening
Consciousness
Ways of Studying Consciousness
•Structuralism – Introspection
•Behaviorism
•Psychophysiology
•Subjective Report
Consciousness
Altered States of Consciousness
•Dreaming
•Drug States
•Hypnosis
•Meditation
•Near Death Experiences
Sleep & Dreaming
Stages of Sleep
REM Rebound
How Much Sleep?
Disorders
The Purpose of Sleep
Dreams
Drug States: Types of Drugs
Stimulants
Depressants
•Amphetamine
•Alcohol
•Cocaine
•Barbiturates
•Ecstasy (MDMA)
•Nicotine
•Caffeine
Hallucinogens
•Valium
•LSD
•Narcotics
•Mescaline
•PCP
•Psilocybin
•Marijuana
Drug States: Addiction
Tolerance
Habituation
Opponent Process Theory
Opposite Aftereffects
Return to Baseline
Effects of Repeated Usage
Dependence
Withdrawal
Drug States: Other Factors
Dosage
Mode of Ingestion
Prior Experience
Set (Expectancy)
LO 4.4
Stages of sleep
Stages of Sleep and Brain Waves
• Electroencephalograph (EEG) - allows scientists to see the brain wave
activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to
determine what type of sleep the person has entered.
Stages of Sleep and Brain Waves
• Alpha waves - brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation.
• Relaxed but awake: Alpha waves
• Theta waves - brain waves indicating early stages of sleep.
• Stage 1: Theta waves appear
• Light sleep; person may claim to still be awake
• Hypnogogic sensations may occur (floating, falling) and can be
incorporated into real memories
• Hypnogogic = sensory experiences without sensory stimuli
• Hypnic jerk – knees, legs, or whole body jerks
• Stage 2: Sleep spindles (brief bursts of rapid brain activity)
• Asleep but may respond to some events, such as ringing phone
• Sleeptalking may occur
Hypnosis
•
Hypnosis – altered state of consciousness in which
the person is especially susceptible to suggestion
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
4 Elements of Hypnosis:
focus
relax
accept suggestions
use imagination
Clinical Hypnosis
 Posthypnotic amnesia – temporary explicit memory
loss, but memories are still there, can affect behavior,
and usually returns to conscious awareness
 Posthypnotic suggestion - suggestion to be carried out
after the subject is no longer hypnotized
 used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms
and behaviors
 Most effective for pain control, headaches, asthma, skin and
weight conditions (psychologically-based)
 Less effective for addictions (physiologically-based)
 Power of believing is the key