PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation
Chapter 1
Introduction and
Historical Review
Abnormal Psychology, Eleventh Edition
by
Ann M. Kring, Gerald C. Davison, John M. Neale,
& Sheri L. Johnson
Psychopathology

Study of the nature, development, and
treatment of psychological disorders

Challenges to the study of
psychopathology:
» Maintaining objectivity
» Avoiding preconceived notions
» Reducing stigma
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
2
Figure 1.1Four Characteristics
of Stigma
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
3
Characteristics of Mental
Disorders

Personal Distress
» Emotional pain and suffering
– Helplessness and hopelessness of depression

Disability
» Impairment in a key area
– Chronic alcohol consumption results in job loss

Violation of Social Norms
» Makes others uncomfortable or causes problems
– Antisocial behavior of the psychopath

Dysfunction
» Wakefield's Harmful Dysfunction
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
4
Figure 1.2 Key Characteristics in the DSM-IVTR Definition of Mental Disorder
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
5
History of Psychopathology

Demonology
» Possession by evil beings or spirits
– Exorcism

Early Biological Explanations
» Hippocrates (5th century BC)
– Mental disturbances have natural (not
supernatural) causes


Three categories: mania, melancholia, & phrenitis
Four humors: blood, black bile, yellow bile, & phlegm
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
6
History of Psychopathology: Dark
Ages

Dark Ages
» Monks cared and prayed for mentally ill

Witches
» Torture sometimes led to bizarre delusional
sounding confessions, e.g., concourse with
demons.
– Historians concluded many of the accused were
mentally ill.
– Little support for that conclusion.
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
7
History of Psychopathology:
Lunacy Trials

Lunacy Trials
» Trials held to determine sanity
– Began in 13th century England
» Municipal authorities assumed
responsibility for care of mentally ill

Lunacy
» Attribues insanity to misalignment of moon
and stars
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
8
History of Psychopathology:
Asylums

Asylum
» Establishments for the confinement and care of mentally
ill
» Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem (1243)
– One of the first mental institutions
– The wealthy paid to gape at the insane
– Origin of the term bedlam


Treatment non-existent or harmful at asylums
Early medical treatment could be harmful
» Benjamin Rush recommended drawing copious amounts
of blood!
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
9
History of Psychopathology: Pinel’s
Reforms and Moral Treatment

Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
» Pioneered humanitarian treatment at LaBicetre

Moral Treatment
» Small, privately funded, humanitarian mental
hospitals
– Friends Asylum (1817)
– Patients engaged in purposeful, calming activities (e.g.,
gardening)
– Talked with attendants
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
10
History of Psychopathology:
Dorothea Dix

Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)
» Crusader for prisoners and mentally ill
» Urged improvement of institutions
» Worked to establish 32 new, public
hospitals
» Hospitals staffed with physicians
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
11
Early Foundations: Biological
Approaches

General paresis
» Degenerative disorder with psychological
symptoms
» Caused by syphilis

Since general paresis had biological cause,
other mental illness might also.
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
12
Early Foundations: Genetics


Galton’s work lead to notion that mental
illness can be inherited
Behavioral genetics
» Extent to which behavioral differences are due to
genetics

Eugenics
» Promotion of enforced sterilization to eliminate
undesirable characteristics from the population
» Many state laws required mentally ill to be
sterilized
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
13
Early Biological treatments

Insulin-coma therapy
» Sakel, 1930s

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
» Cerletti and Bini (1938)
» Induce epileptic seizures with electric shock

Prefrontal lobotomy
» Moniz (1935)
» Often led to listlessness, apathy, and lack of some
cognitive abilities
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
14
Early Foundations: Emil Kraepelin
(1856-1926)
Pioneered classification of mental illness
based on biological causes
 Published 1st psychiatry text (1883)
 Mental illness as syndrome

» Cluster of symptoms that co-occur

Proposed two major syndromes
» Dementia praecox
» Manic-depressive psychosis
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
15
Early Foundations: Psychological
Approaches

Mesmer (1734-1815)
» Treated patients with hysteria using “animal
magnetism”
» Early practitioner of hypnosis

Breuer (1842-1925)
» Used hypnosis to facilitate catharsis
» Catharsis
– Release of emotional tension triggered by reliving
and talking about event
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
16
Early Foundations: Freud

Psychoanalytic theory
» Human behavior determined by
unconscious forces.
» Psychopathology results from conflicts
among these unconscious forces.
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
17
Freud’s Structures of the Mind

Id
» Unconscious
» Pleasure principle
– Immediate gratification
» Libido
– Energy of ID

Ego
» Primarily conscious
» Reality principle
– Attempt to satisfy ID’s demands within reality’s constraints

Superego
» The conscience
» Develops as we incorporate parental and society values
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
18
Freud’s Stage Theory of
Psychosexual Development

Oral Stage (birth to 18 mos.)
»

Anal Stage (18 mos. to 3)
»

Pleasure derived from sexual organs
Latency Period (6 to 12)
»

Pleasure derived from elimination
Phallic Stage (3 to 5 or 6)
»

Primary satisfaction from sucking & chewing
Id impulses not a factor
Genital Stage (adulthood)
»
Heterosexual interests predominate
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
19
Fixation and Regression

Fixation
» Too little or too much gratification leads to
fixation at that stage
» When stressed, individual regresses to
earlier stage.
– Behaves in ways that were appropriate at an
earlier age
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
20
Defense Mechanisms
Id, Ego, & Superego continually in conflict
 Conflict generates anxiety
 Defense mechanisms

» Psychological maneuvers used to manage stress
& anxiety

Repression
» Intentional, although unconscious, forgetting
– Memories, impulses, traumatic events
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
21
Table 1.1 Selected Defense
Mechanisms
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
22
Table 1.2 Major Techniques of
Psychoanalysis
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
23
Neo-Freudians

Jung
» Analytical psychology
– Incorporates Freudian and humanistic psychology
» Collective unconscious


Archetypes
Adler
» Individual psychology
– Fulfillment derived from working for the social good

Ego Analysis
» Emphasized individual’s control of environment
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
24
Rise of Behaviorism
John Watson (1878-1958)
 Behaviorism

» Emphasis on learning rather than innate
tendencies
» Focus on observable behavior
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
25
Classical Conditioning

Pavlov (1849-1936)
» Learning through association

Elements of learning
»
»
»
»

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Conditioned Response (CR)
Watson & Raynor (1920)
» Classically conditioned fear in Little
Albert
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
26
Operant Conditioning

E. Thorndike (1874-1949)
» Learning through consequences
» Law of Effect

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
» Principle of Reinforcement
– Positive reinforcement
 Behaviors followed by pleasant stimuli are strengthened
– Negative reinforcement
 Behaviors that terminate a negative stimulus are strengthened
» Shaping
– Reward a sequence of responses that approximate the final
response
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
27
Modeling

Learning by imitating others’ behavior
» Can occur without reinforcement

Bandura & Menlove (1968)
» Modeling reduced children’s fear of dogs

Behavior Therapy
» Systematic Desensitization
» Aversive conditioning
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
28
Mental Health Professions

Clinical Psychologist
» Ph.D. or Psy.D.

Psychiatrist
» M.D.

Social Workers
» M.S.W.
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
29
COPYRIGHT
Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, New
York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the
material protected by this copyright may be
reproduced or utilized in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording or by any information
storage and retrieval system, without written
permission of the copyright owner.
Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, NY
30
Download

Chapter 1 - IPFW.edu