Unit One:
“Making sense of
other people”
1. Memory
2. Non-verbal
communication
3. Development of
personality
4. Stereotyping,
prejudice and
discrimination
5. Research methods
 amac edu 2011
Memory: famous quote by William
James (c1890)
“To constantly remember
everything all the time,
would probably
be worse than
remembering
nothing at all”
Concept: Primary & Secondary Memory
A typical definition of memory:
“Systemised storage of information
based on experience in which these
events are processed and are stored
ready for use and this information can
be utilised for past, present or future”.
(Take notes under following headings)
• Past……………………….
• Present…………………..
• Future……………………
What has memory to do with
making sense of other people?
Amygdala
Frontal Cortex
Hippocampus
Cognitive Neuroscience
Memory (1.1)
The Multi-Store Model (Atkinson and
Shiffrin, 1968)
Key terms / concepts:
Encoding Storage
Retrieval Attention
Sensory
Store
LTM
Store
STM
Store
Sensory
Store
The Multi-Store Model cont…
Serial flow of information (processes):
Encode > Store > Retrieve
(Draw as a ‘Box & arrow’ Diagram)
Concepts:
Cognitive Psychology
Receiving information: ‘The Cocktail Party Effect’
The Multi-Store Model cont…
Store
Sensory
Store
Attention
Short –
term
Store
Recall
Task: Explain how the model works:
Long –
term
Store
MSM: Characteristics of the
stores (and how we know)
Memory
Store
Sensory
Duration
Capacity
Less than one
second
Very limited
Short-term
20-30 seconds
Peterson &
Peterson (1959)
7 +/- 2 chunks of
information
Miller (1956)
Infinite
Infinite
Bahrick et al (1975)
‘Lexical Capability’
Murdock (1962)
Long-term
How do we know (1):
Do AMRC Peterson & Peterson
(textbook p10)
I will run through simple AMRC’s for
Bahrick et al (1975) & Miller (1956)
 Concepts:
Infinite / Finite
Lexical Capability
What does ‘et al’ mean?
How do we know (2): Murdock (1962)
Total
Recall
1
3
2
First words
LTM
Store
Primacy Effect
Middle words
Rehearsal
Last words
STM
Store
Recency Effect
Do AMRC p10 textbook. Copy above, define ‘Primacy &
Recency Effect’ and explain what is going on at points 1/2/3 and
how does this support the model?
Concept: Schemata (pl. schema)
• One of the most important concepts in cognitive
psychology:
“A complex bundle of
information or associations
stored in the brain which
cognitively represents
something, often in a vague sort
of way”
It can be: an object, stored general knowledge, how to do
something or an event.
You have never seen these particular things
before, so how do you know that they are all
windows except one?
(1.2) Other explanations of memory:
Bartlett (1932)
A Study of Reconstructive Memory
Fredrick Bartlett created the
expression:
‘RECONSTRUCTIVE
MEMORY’
Concept: Reconstructive Memory
• Memory is deconstructed in
storage (simplified like ‘semantic
bullet points’) and reconstructed in
recall (create a coherent narrative
from incomplete information).
We only store and recall significant detail.
Memory is not a second by second video recording of the
past.
Memory is more like a reporter’s shorthand note book.
If reconstructed from incomplete detail, how accurate?
Bartlett’s research involved……
‘Serial Repetition’ (define…..) of
stories such as ‘War of the
Ghosts’
• The people came down to the water and they began
to fight, and many were killed. But presently the
young man heard one of the warriors say, "Quick, let
us go home: that Indian has been hit." Now he
thought: "Oh, they are ghosts." He did not feel sick,
but they said he had been shot.
• So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young
man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And
he told everybody and said: "Behold I accompanied
the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows
were killed, and many of those who attacked us were
killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick."
• He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the
sun rose he fell down. Something black came out of
his mouth. His face became contorted. The people
jumped up and cried.
• He was dead.
Extract from ‘War of the Ghosts’
and serial repetition of weird
pictures………
Recognise
the picture?
What Bartlett found with the
story:
The UK participants tended to:
 Shorten it from 320 words to about 180 words
in one repetition (memory does simplify &
shorten).
 Sharpen it to create an understandable
Cowboys & Indians story in terms of western
culture.
 So based on existing schema (existing
knowledge)
What Bartlett found with the
pictures:
 Bartlett deliberately chose pictures
that were confusing (original picture
was sort of half-bird and half-cat)
 Therefore how would we store the
memory? (slowly create a picture
based on existing schema eg. cat or
bird)
Over to you…..
Do AMRC’s for:
• Bartlett (1932) p12
• Wynn and Logie (1998) p13
(1.2) Another explanation of
memory……
• Craik and Lockhart (1972)
“Levels of Processing”
(Looks like)
(Sounds like)
(what it means)
Surface >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Deep
Which is best for
recall?
Experimental evidence
(Craik & Lockhart, 1972)
1. Is this word upper or lower case and typed
or handwritten ? Car
Structural process, little brain activity, 15% recall
2. Listen to sound of the word “CAR”
Phonetic (sound) process, increased brain activity,35%
recall
3. What is a car and what do you use it for?
Semantic (meaning) process, very active brain, 70% recall
How do we know about levels of
brain activity?... Brain scanning
• CAT
• PET
• MRI
• fMRI
Over to you…..
• Suggests that unlike the MSM, there is
more than just rehearsal involved in the
process of storage
• This model has practical applications
for learning strategies…. (Don’t just
look or listen, try to understand…)
• Do an AMRC for Craik and Lockhart
p14
A task for you…
1. Define the following words: Encoding,
Elaborative Rehearsal, Deconstruction &
Reconstruction, Coherent Narrative,
Semantic, Salient Semantic Bullet Points,
Schema, Phonetic, fMRI / PET scans.
(Try and use them in the tasks below)
2. Briefly outline the three explanations of
memory (MSM, Reconstructive, LoP)
3. State what each of these explanations
suggest about memory
Hand-in………..
(1.3) Why we forget?
• Memory is a great mystery. It
can involve all our senses
(vision, sound, smell etc). We
can have vivid memories from
years and years ago. Yet we can
also forget something from
literally seconds earlier.
‘Tip of the tongue effect’
• What it is…
• Why it happens…
Anna Kournikova
(1.3) Why we forget?
If you are very good at table tennis, why
might this be a problem if you decided
to take up tennis?
Try to use the word interfere
or interference
(1.3) Why we forget: Interference
Define the following:
• Interference
• Semantic confusion
• Retroactive interference* (old<<<<new)
• Proactive interference* (old>>>>new)
• Release from proactive interference
(*illustrate in terms of old friend’s
name and new friend’s name)
Recall
Proactive Interference (old on new)
1. Names
2. Names 3. Names 4. Colours
Copy and explain what is going on…
Retroactive Interference (new on old)
• Do an AMRC for Underwood &
Postman (1960) p17
List 1
List 2
+
+
(1.3) Why we forget: Context
(Context Dependency)
• Define ‘context’ in terms of learning
environment:
• Do AMRC for Godden & Baddeley (1975)
• Apply to learning
and exams:
• Apply to Police
reconstructions of
crimes:
Are forgetting and remembering
the same concepts?
Remembering and Dependency
Theory
Define:
• Context Dependency
• Cue Dependency
• State Dependency
Memory ‘pegs’
(1.3) Why we forget: Amnesia
Amnesia in simple terms, is the temporary
loss of memory or permanent loss of
memory. The cause can be physical of
psychological
Define:
Anterograde, Retrograde, Hippocampus
and morbidity
 Organic Amnesia: includes damage to the brain,
usually through ‘stroke’ trauma, disease or
sedative substance abuse (eg. alcohol,
especially long-term abuse).
 Functional or Psychic Amnesia: is caused by
psychological factors, such as shock or
defense mechanisms eg. Hysterical posttraumatic amnesia.
Movies & Amnesia: Retrograde
LTM: Deficit (-)
STM Preserved (+)
“The common perception
of ‘Bump-on-the-Head’
and forget who you are
amnesia”
How might this
affect behaviour?
Clinical Amnesia (1): Retrograde
Korsakoff’s Syndrome
(Butters & Cermak, 1980)
Long term alcohol abuse,
leaving preserved STM
(they might know where
they are) but a serious
deficit in LTM (they
can’t remember
how they got there!)
Movies & Amnesia: Anterograde
STM deficit (-)
LTM preserved (+)
“Not as common as
Reterograde and
hard to understand”
How might this
affect behaviour?
Clinical Amnesia (2):
Anterograde
K.F. (Shallice & Warrington,
1970)
Motor bike accident patient
K.F. left with serious deficit
STM (impaired new memory)
and preserved LTM
(memory ok premorbidity*).
*What does
premorbitity mean?
Damage
here
leads to
STM
deficit
 Make notes from textbook
(p19): Miller (1968) &
Russell and Nathan
(1946)
 What do the diagrams
above suggest?
 What is ‘GradedRetrograde Amnesia?
Damage here
leads to LTM
deficit
Advanced Issue:
‘Double Dissociation’
STM
LTM
Korsakoff’s


(Retrograde Amnesia)
LTM Damage, STM
ok
K.F.
(Anterograde
Amnesia) STM
Damage, LTM ok


So how does this support the MSM?
A task for you…
1. Define and explain in terms of brain
damage: Anterograde and Retrograde
Amnesia.
2. Using your own resources outline
another explanation of why we forget.
3. Using your acquired knowledge of
remembering/forgetting, suggest a
strategy for examination revision.
Hand-in………..
How accurate is EWT?
Eye Witness
Testimony
Factors which effect the
accuracy of EWT:
• Leading Questions
•Unfamiliar faces
•Context of recall (C.I.)
•Stereotypes
EWT (Court Room Setting)
• Imagine that you were the witness to a
fatal road traffic accident.
• This is the sort of question that you
might have to answer in court:
“In your opinion, how fast was the car
going as it approached the bend?”
The problem is don’t actually know! So
on what do you base your estimate?
o Pre-event information?
Stored memories of driving a car or being a
passenger (schema driven… remember Bartlett)
o Post-event information?
Something after the event influences your
estimation (eg. The wording of the question:
“smashed into” vs “made contact with”).
(cognitive ‘laziness’ driven)
Which do you think has the strongest influence?
Loftus & Palmer (1974):
Leading Questions
Question:
“How fast were
the cars going
when they ……
into/with each
other” ?
Incident
Verb:
+
Estimated Speed:
Smashed
Collided
40.8 mph
Bumped
38.1
Hit
34.0
Made contact
30.8
External Info =
How fast when ….
& any broken
glass?
(Leading Q’s)
39.3
Possibl
e
False
Memory
?
Do AMRC p21 ‘Loftus & Palmer’ (1974)
What type of graph
is this and why?
40.8
39.3
38.1
34
30.8
Loftus asked all her participants to
rate their confidence in recall
Famous quote:
“Confidence
in recall
does not equate with
accuracy in recall”
Over to you: “A leading question contains the answer as desired by the
asker.”
So in court think how defence and prosecution may differ in style of
questioning…
However, in court…….
A question will be over ruled by a judge
if it is considered to be a:
L ---------------- Q ----------------
You should now know why is this type of
question objected to….
Do AMRC p21
Other factors: Unfamiliar faces
• Bruce and Young (1998)
You are only good at recognizing
‘familiar faces’. So much so that
identity parades are considered
unreliable and only in exceptional
circumstances can they be accepted
without other collaborating evidence.
Concept: VIPER (Video Identity parade
Electronic Recognition)
Cognitive Interviews
Other factors:
Context
(remember
‘dependency’)
• Geiselman et al
(1985)
• Do AMRC p21
It mimics the way memory
works:
1. Factual retrieval cues
(context dependency:
recreate the event)
2. Emotional retrieval cues
(state dependency:
recreate how you felt)
 Avoid ‘Leading
Questions’ (re: Loftus)
 Links to Godden &
Baddeley (Divers)
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memory (FILE minimizer) PowerPoint