SOLLIANCE
An R&D cluster bringing
thin film solar energy
technology to excellence
CIGS technologies:
Performance and roadmap
-
What is it?
Why do you want it?
How is it made?
How can it be used?
How will it develop in the future?
Technodag CIGS
Stichting KIEN
Ando Kuypers
Program manager CIGS
TNO - Solliance
 3
Solliance:
Solliance: a thin-film solar R&D collaboration
Solliance was founded in 2011,
supported by Province of Noord Brabant with € 28 Million investment
to strengthen industry in the region
Shared research facilities and 250 fte researchers
with a focus on thin film Si, OPV and CIGS
 4
Solliance:
Publiek Private Samenwerking dunne film PV
Manon Jansen
Boegbeeld
Topteam Energie
HyEt Solar
Bert Pauli
Gedeputeerde
Provincie Brabant
Solliance/Holst Centre
 5
Why thin film?
Crystalline versus thin film PV thickness
3
 6
Why thin film?
Crystalline versus thin film PV thickness
Taken from: “CIS modules by Solar Frontier; Highest yields even under extreme conditions”

Wat is CIGS ?
Koper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide(-Sulfide)
0,003
mm
4 december 2014
7
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Shared research met bedrijven
Apparatuur ontwikkeling voor dunne film PV
0,003
mm
4 december 2014
8

CdS: Cadmium Sulfide is geel
Jaarproduktie CdS pigment: 2000 ton (Wikipedia)
Gewicht Heineken krat = 2 kg
Bevat 0,1% Cd = 2 gram
(2005-2008: 28000 ton Heineken
granulaat verwerkt = 28 ton Cd )
4 december 2014
Gewicht CIGS paneel = 16,6 kg
Bevat 0,00065 % Cd = 0,11 gram
(30 nm CdS komt overeen met
0,14 gram CdS /m2)
9

Why CIGS?
•
•
•
Less than 3 µm thickness is enough to absorb visible light in
single pass
Only thin film technology that competes with crystalline-Si in
efficiency (next to CdTe)
More kWh per kW p (high performance ratio)
• Light soaking (underrating of W p specifications)
• Temperature coefficient
• Low light performance
•
•
•
•
Can be produced directly on many different (construction)
materials: glass, metal, polymers
Can be produced in many different ways
Widest variety of module concepts
Highest potential for midterm cost reduction
4 december 2014
10
Recepten voor CIGS massaproductie
Typische procestemperatuur 500-600 graden
Co-evaporatie (of sputteren) met of zonder gradiënten
CIG precursor
- Sputteren
- Printen
- Electrochemisch
Cu
substraat
Seleniseren (Se-damp, H2Se)
Seleen laag opbrengen
(Se-damp, H2Se)
In, Ga
galvanisch
Odersun: failliet
Kristalliseren
(RTP)
Seleniseren/kristalliseren
CIGS
Recepten voor CIGS massaproductie
Typische procestemperatuur 500-600 graden
4-12-2014
Voorbeeld CIGS productielijn (Centrotherm)
T.o.v. Si: hogere investeringskosten, lagere running cost
CdS
Se
Scribes
Test
TCO
CIG
Mo
Test
Junction box
Contact
Lamineren
Encapsulatie
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14
Wp: CIGS highest thin film cell efficiency
CIGS
4 december 2014

15
CIGS efficiency records
Present record 21,7% (tandem 23,4%). Different CIGS routes produce similar efficiencies.
Solliance mission: Bridging the efficiency gap by more effective, low cost process technology
Stion tandem
Solar Frontier (sputter + H2Se)
EMPA (coevap PI 450C)
ZSW (coevap glass)
23
21
19
NREL (coevap glass)
17
SIVA (coevap <2µm)
Solar Frontier
Samsung
15
13
SolarFrontier, TSMC, Solibro, Solopower, etc
Nexcis
11
Record cells
9
Record 30x30 modules
7
Record production modules
5
2005
Commercial CIGS modules
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015
4 december
2014
Comparison
First
Solar CdTe: 13,4 av prod; 17,0 champion module; 20,4 research record

€/Wp: Forecast CIGS/CZTS market
 Doubled by 2015
 Thin film winner
 Strong players are
investing
 High potential for cost
reduction
 High potential for
efficiency increase
(23% mid term)
 Specific advantages
have to be utilized in
applications
4 december 2014
16

€/kWh instead of €/Wp
Temperature coefficient and low light performance
Data as cited by Veronica Bermudez
at Berlin Thin Film Week 2013
4 december 2014
17

€/kWh instead of €/Wp: shade tolerance
Taken from: “CIS modules by Solar Frontier; Highest yields even under extreme conditions”
4 december 2014
18

€/kWh instead of €/Wp
Taken from: “CIS modules by Solar Frontier; Highest yields even under extreme conditions”
4 december 2014
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CIGS in Netherlands
• CIGS modules from several suppliers
available on the Dutch market
• Still a small percentage of total
installations (1%?)
• Study of first experiences
 21
CIGS in Netherlands
•
•
•
•
Competitive pricing since beginning of this year
Prices spot market moving down to 0.40 €/Wp
Dedicated inverters available at lower price
Number of installers for thin film increasing
Sunflower Solar Systems (CIGS by TSMC)
 22
CIGS integration in built environment
 23
CIGS integration in built environment
Stion gevelpanelen
Amstelveen door
Eigenenergie.net
 24
CIGS products by Ascent Solar
 25
DOW Solar roof shingles (CIGS on foil)
 26
Solyndra (now bankrupt)
 27
Lithodecor & Odersun (now bankrupt)
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Status: CIGS/CZTS 2014
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Solar Frontier, scaling production beyond 1 GW
Solibro, 95 megawatt in 2011 (sold to Hanergy)
MiaSolé, 60 megawatt in 2011 (sold to Hanergy)
Solyndra (bankrupt)
Avancis (sold to CNBM)
Global Solar (sold to Hanergy)
Soltecture (bankrupt)
Nanosolar (for sale, Hanergy hiring ex-Nanosolar employees)
AQT (bankrupt)
HelioVolt (no commercial production)
Ascent Solar ; scaling up in US and China
ISET (limited commercial production, company is transitioning
to "micro-solar components")
Stion (technology partly licenced to TSMC)
SoloPower (restart)
Solexant (Markus Beck moved to Solexant)
TSMC (technology licensed from Stion)
NuvoSun (acquired by Dow)
4 december 2014
Status 2012
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Bosch CIGS research only
Wurth/Manz equipment offer
Flisom, investment (a.o Tata)
Nexcis, investment (a.o EDF)
Research activities major
European players
Samsung, research phase
Several Chinese investors and
startups
 29
By Rommel Noufi, NREL, Feb 2013
4 december 2014

Thank you for your attention!
[email protected]
4 december 2014
30
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Ando Kuypers - Solliance