MODULE 1
Introduction to
Backward Design and
Learner-Centered Teaching (LCT)
Our Goal
How to design engaging learning
experiences that focuses on
understanding?
At the end of the course, faculty will be able to plan,
design and implement an engaging course centered
on students learning
Learning Objectives
• What is the difference between knowledge and understanding?
• How the backward design differ from the traditional way?
• How does course design affect student learning?
• What are the benefits of backward design?
• What are the stages of backward design?
• How do they relate to each other?
• How LCT differ from the traditional teaching?
• What are the benefits of using LCT?
• What are the LCT approaches?
• What are the purposes of using LCT approaches?
The Traditional Way
Topic
What is the course about?
Resources and
Instruction
What do I need to help me to teach it?
How should I teach it?
Assessments
How should I assess students?
What is the PROBLEM?
It is too Vague!!
Choose a course and ask yourself:
What is the purpose of the course?
• Is it to cover the topics?
• Is it to understand the book?
Usually what professors do is to give the students as many
information as possible
Focus on cover the Knowledge
What is the PROBLEM?
Do Students really understand?
Knowledge
vs
Understanding
• Definitions and Concepts
• Application to new and different
• Where it can be applied
situations
• Limited application
• Causes and consequences
Follow a recipe
Chef
• May be successful if does exactly
• Able to create new recipes
what the recipes says
• Able to predict what happens if an
• Cannot cook without the recipe
ingredient is added
In summary, the problems are:
• The course content is NOT aligned to the desired outcomes
• The course may have too much content
• Activities may not be aligned with the purpose of the course
• It focuses on the content and teaching method, instead of student
understanding (lack of application)
What is the CONSEQUENCE?
Next Slide
Design affects learning
How does course design influence student learning?
Confusion to get the main point -
Unrelated topics and
the big idea. Students are not able
activities
to transfer the knowledge to other
contexts
Coverage approach
encourages memorization –
Knowledge will last for a short
“cramming for the test”
term. Students do not really learn
How should the design be done?
Next Slide
The Backward Design
Define
Learning
Objectives
1st
Define
Evidences
of Learning
and
Assessment
tasks
2nd
Plan
Learning
Experiences
3rd
1
Learning Objectives
What should the students
know, understand and be able
to do?
• What is the point?
• What is the Big Idea?
• Why should students learn it?
Evidences of Learning and
2
Assessment Tasks
How will professors know if
students achieved desired
results?
• How to measure understanding?
• What look for?
• How to evaluate the assessment results?
3
Learning Experiences
What should students
do to achieve the
desired results?
• What activities will help students to get the point?
• What is the role of the professor?
• How to engage students?
3
Learning Experiences
What characteristics the learning
experiences should have to help students
to learn?
Learner-Centered Teaching
Teaching approach that:
• Focuses on student learning
• Encourages students to participate
• Challenges students to think critically
• Creates meaning from experience
• Relies on multiples sources of learning and teaching
• Uses examples grounded in real-life experience
• Allows for creativity and discovery in and outside the classroom
Why is it different?
Next Slide
http://www.ferris.edu/fctl/Teaching_and_Learning_Tips/Learner-Centered%20Teaching/LCOverview.htm
http://www.ydae.purdue.edu/lct/mission.html
The Traditional Teaching
“It is a rain of information”
Traditional Teaching vs LearnerCentered Teaching
Behavioralism
vs
Constructivism
Curriculum Begins with the parts of the whole. Emphasizes big concepts, beginning
Emphasizes basic skills
with the whole and expanding to
include the parts
Value
Strict adherence to fixed
curriculum is highly valued
Pursuit of student questions and
interests is valued
Materials
Textbooks and workbooks
Primary sources of material and
manipulative materials
Learning
base
Repetition
Interactive, building on what the
student already knows
Teachers
Disseminate information
Help students to construct their own
knowledge
SOURCE: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub1.html
The spotlight shifts from the teacher to
the student!
Behavioralism
vs
Constructivism
Teacher’s
role
Directive, rooted in authority
Teacher's role is interactive, rooted
in negotiation and coaching
Students
Recipients of knowledge
Builders of knowledge
Assessment
Through testing, correct answers
Includes student works,
observations, and points of view,
as well as tests. Process is as
important as product
Knowledge
Is seen as inert
Is seen as dynamic, ever changing
with our experiences
Class
Activities
Students work primarily alone.
Students work primarily in groups
SOURCE: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub1.html
LCT Approaches
Active Learning
Makes the learning environment exciting!
Encourages students to actively participate in
class activities, promoting interest and
increasing self-confidence
Examples:
• In-class discussion, debates, writing
• Peer teaching or team working
• Visual instruction: Videos, Demonstration
• Games
• Role-playing
http://www.cat.ilstu.edu/additional/tips/newActive.php
Inquiry Learning
Understanding by questioning
Encourages students to think critically
and solve problems
Examples:
• Problem-Solving Activities
• Case Study
• Simulation to test different alternatives
• Project Development
http://thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index.html
Contextual Learning
Learning in real-life situations
Integrates classroom instruction with reallife situation and reflection. It applies
knowledge in real-world , addressing
community needs and turning students into
responsible citizens
Example:
• Science class about pollution complemented with
an activity of collecting trash in an urban area
http://www.servicelearning.org/what_is_service-learning/service-learning_is/index.php
Benefits
Backward Design
LCT
• Engages students
• Clear course objectives
• Creates the habit of inquiring
• Focus on the Big Ideas
• Gives the opportunity to learn
• Class activities and assessments
from experience
coherent with course objectives
• Flexibility to adapt class activities
to student style and interests
Summary
•
Backward Design’s Essence is that a course must be designed around its
objectives
•
Design stages:
1. Identify the big ideas and define objectives
2. Determine evidences of learning to measure if students achieved the
objectives defined in stage 1 and the assessment tasks
3. Plan Learning Activities in order to help students to accomplish the
course objectives
•
LCT is a teaching approach that improves student learning capabilities by
encouraging them to engage in learning activities (Active Learning), think
critically (Inquiry Learning), practice knowledge in real-life contexts, and
become a responsible citizen (Contextual Learning)
Learning Objectives
• What is the difference between knowledge and understanding?
• How the backward design differ from the traditional way?
• How does course design affect student learning?
• What are the benefits of backward design?
• What are the stages of backward design?
• How do they relate to each other?
• How LCT differ from the traditional teaching?
• What are the benefits of using LCT?
• What are the LCT approaches?
• What are the purposes of using LCT approaches?
References
• Backward Design
Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay. Understanding by Design. 2nd Edition. ASCD, Virginia,
2005.
• Learner-Centered Teaching
http://www.ydae.purdue.edu/lct/mission.html
http://www.ferris.edu/fctl/Teaching_and_Learning_Tips/LearnerCentered%20Teaching/LCOverview.htm
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub1.html
• Active Learning
http://www.cat.ilstu.edu/additional/tips/newActive.php
• Inquiry Learning
http://thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/index.html
• Contextual Learning
http://www.texascollaborative.org/WhatIsCTL.htm
http://www.servicelearning.org/what_is_service-learning/service-learning_is/index.php