Comunicación y Gerencia Europe Looks Outward (1000 -1720) Chapter 2 Content Standards • North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by Europeans for economic and religious reasons. 1. I can explain the economic reasons behind the European exploration of North America. 2. I can explain the religious reasons behind the European exploration of North America. 3. I can explain how competition for control of territory and resources in North America led to conflicts among colonizing powers. - History Standard #2 • Competition for control of the territory and resources in North America led to conflicts among colonizing powers. - History Standard #3 Quick-Write What do you know about the following: 1.Who discovered America and what were they looking for? 2.All-Water Route to Asia . . . What was it, and why was it important? 3.The Columbian Exchange . . . What was it, and why was it important? FirFirst Visitors from Europe Native Americans (Asia) Vikings (Scandinavia) Christopher Columbus What he REALLY did: • Spain v/s Portugal born? • Studied sailing, maps, and charts. • All-Water Route to Asia . . . Thought it would only take 21 days • Who financed the trip after 6 years of waiting? • Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria (1492) • West Indies (Nicknamed the Natives “Indians”) • Cuba (Japan?) • Island of Hispaniola • Returned Home 1493 • What did he do for Spain? Spain Backs MORE Voyages • • • • • • Christopher Columbus Four voyages Gold/Forced Labor Claimed land for Spain Converting Natives to Christianity Enslavement of Locals South America (Northern Coast) “ . . . Asia?” Others • Amerigo Vespucci • Vasco Nunez de Balboa • Ferdinand Magellan The Columbian Exchange The “Exchange” of people, products, and ideas between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres Spain’s Empire in the Americas Chapter 2 Section 2 Hernan Cortes • Conquered Cuba for Spain • Heard tales about cities of gold across the Gulf of Mexico • Cortes went against Spain’s wishes and set out with 11 ships, 600 Spanish soldiers, and 200 Cubans. Tenochtitlan Quetzalcoatl • An Aztec legend of a pale-skin, feathered Serpent god . • . . . “the feathered Serpent has returned to the Aztec Empire to reclaim his throne. If he comes, he strikes at kings.” • “Our lord and king . . . They have arrived at the shores of the great sea. Their weapons and equipment are all made of iron. Their bodies are covered everywhere; only their faces can be seen. They are white, as if made of lime.” Montezuma sends messengers with gifts . . . • Golden masks inlaid with turquoise • Headdresses with bright feathers • Gold jewelry and shields Hernan Cortes • Pale-faced stranger • Spanish conquistador • “Is this all? I and my friends suffer from a disease of the heart which only gold can cure!” Greed . . . Fear • After leaving the coast, Cortes founded a colony and named it Veracruz. . . Claiming Mexico for Spain and the Catholic Church. • Montezuma continued to send sacks of gold in hopes that the Spaniards would be satisfied and turn back before reaching the city. • The Spaniards ended up with about $8 million worth of Aztec Gold. The Fall of the Aztec Empire • Montezuma’s capture and death • Spaniards retreat • The “great sickness” hits the Aztecs (smallpox/measles?) • Mounted soldiers returned with guns and other native tribes • Aztec Empire conquered . . . capital of “New Spain” is Mexico City. The Incan Empire • Conquistadors explored the West coast of South America looking for gold and silver • The Incan ruler was Atahualpa • Atahualpa was in a civil war with his half-brother Francisco Pizarro • (1526) captured an Incan trading boat loaded with silver and gold • Used the crew as interpreters and led an attack on the Incan Empire The Fall of the Incan Empire • Pizarro and his men captured the Incan capital of Cuzco and held Atahualpa for ransom promising to let him go once they were paid . . . They never kept their promise. • Part of the Incan Empire held out against the Spaniards for almost 40 years . . . unlike the Aztecs who fell in two years. • The Spaniards found far more gold in South America than in Mexico . . the Incan Empire became Spain’s richest colony. Defeated by Cortes and Pizarro How/Why? Spain Builds a Vast Empire •New wealth •Expansion of Navy & Army Explorations •Settlements in the new Americas Other Spanish Explorers • Juan Ponce de Leon • Alva Nunez Cabeza de Vaca • Francisco Coronado • Hernando de Soto Spain’s American Empire New Spain Northern Empire Peru Southern Empire Viceroy • The governing officials put in charge of “New Spain” and “Peru” • Responsible for producing wealth for Spain • Rich deposits of silver, cotton, sugarcane, and other crops grown on plantations Missions • Religious communities that usually included a small town surrounding farmland and a church • Started by Catholic religious workers called • Natives are taught religion, crafts, and skills Social Classes in New Spain •Peninsulares •Creoles •Mestizos Forced Labor (Slavery?) • Native Americans made up the largest group of people in Spain’s empire. • Forced to work in the mines and on plantations under cruel conditions. The Spanish Crown • Gave plantation owners the right to demand labor from the Native Americans • In return they had to pay Native Americans their wages, ensure their security, and instruct them in the Roman Catholic religion. Spanish Explorers The Spanish “Borderlands” • Explorers turned their attention to the borderlands looking for gold. . . Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca • Juan Ponce de Leon – (Florida) searching for the fountain of youth • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado(Southwestern) searching for the Seven Cities of Gold • Hernando de Soto- (present-day South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee) searching for the Seven Cities of Gold Missions in the Borderlands • Instead of soldiers, the government sent missionaries to start new settlements • From the 1560s – 1820s, Spain set up hundreds of missions in present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Texas , California Florida, and Georgia Restrictions on Native Americans - Could not leave without permission - daily activities were scheduled to attend - Forced to give up their own religious beliefs and traditions *Many Native Americans rebelled . . . Some attacked missions and missionaries or just simply left. Death Tolls for the Natives Rise • Disease • Forced labor • Tunnels caving Africans were brought to the Caribbean . . . Europeans Compete in North America Chapter 2 Section 3 Reformation • Protestant Movement • Martin Luther • John Calvin Religion & King Henry VIII • (1534) King Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church • Scandal/Divorce • “The Church of England” • England became a Protestant country Mercantilism • A country could be rich only if wealth continually flowed into its economy and its government treasury. • It was the colonists duty to ship most of the gold, silver, or other resources found in the colony back to their home country in Europe. *Spain was the first European country to set up colonies in the Americas (with the use of mercantilism). Mercantilism • The colonies existed to make the “Home/Mother” country wealthy and powerful. The Spanish Armada • Passing of King Henry VIII (Protestant) . . . Queen Mary I (Roman Catholic) . . . Queen Elizabeth I (Protestant) • Rivalry w/”Roman Catholic” Spain • English raids on Spanish ships (Gold) . . . Aide to rebels (Holland) • King Phillip (130 warships) . . . Off the coast of France • Spanish defeated and weakened . . . NORTHWEST PASSAGE ? • Can you reach Asia by going through or around the Arctic Ocean ? Henry Hudson •Henry Hudson’s Voyages France and the Netherlands in North America Chapter 2 Section 3 Samuel de Champlain • Fur companies hired Champlain and paid for his expedition to lead the first French attempt at settling in America. • Champlain established Quebec (the 1st permanent French settlement) • Quebec City and Montreal . . . Trade centers French Exploration • Jacques Cartier claimed eastern Canada for France . . . He never found an all water route to the east, nor did he find silver or gold. • Cartier reported that there were a great many furbearing animal in North America Other French Explorers • Jacques Marquette (Missions) and Louis Joliet (trader). . . Explored the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River • Rene Robert Cavelier (AKA LaSalle) claimed the Mississippi River Valley (Louisiana) The French and the Native Americans The French: • Learned the Native American languages • Studied their customs and cultures • Instead of changing their ways . . . They accepted their ways * Champlain was known as the “Father of New France” The French Fur Trade • “New France’s” economy was based on fur trade . . . Beaver, otter, fox, etc. . . • Fur was very fashionable in Europe • Rivers were used as highways to travel across New France • Trading posts were set up along the way and Native Americans became friendly with them and began to help and trade The French Empire • Trappers, traders, priests, and soldiers continued to move into the lands that France had claimed. • Many trading posts and forts were built (Detroit, St. Louis, and New Orleans) Land Grants • Cold weather and attacks by the Iroquois kept many people from leaving France. • The government and economy in France was stable . . . No reason for people to leave. • King Louis XIV set up a land grant system to encourage people to settle. • Land was given to French nobles for getting people to settle there and farm the land. • The French government set up military forts that connected Canada with Louisiana and its claims along the Mississippi River. New Netherlands & New Sweden Henry Hudson (1609) The “New” Netherlands 1621 – Dutch West India Company sets up a trading company 1624 – Sent 30 families to settle New Amsterdam– center of new colony located on Manhattan Island Purchased from Native Americans Grows slowly - No real reason to move there. Their country was prosperous and New York City 1626 – Peter Minuit, governor of colony, buys land for about $24-$26 (beads, knives, etc…) Swedes in New Netherlands Mid-1600s Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near New Netherland. 1655 Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesant attack New Sweden. Main fort fell after bloodless siege. New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland. New Amsterdam, 1664 New English King Takes Over * Civil War in England between Parliament (mainly Puritans) and supporters of Charles I. * King beheaded for treason. • Puritans run country for 11 years * 1660 – King Charles II takes over New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!] 1664 English soldiers arrived. Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses. Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot. Renamed “New York” England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies. England now controlled the Atlantic coast! The Impact on Native Americans Pros • Furs • Manufactured Goods . . . cloth, iron pots, tools, and guns • Huron/French • Iroquois/Dutch Cons • • • • • Competition for fur Tribal Enemies Dutch had guns Native American attacks Depletion of fur-bearing animals • Disease Native Americans’ value to the colonist decreased, yet their land became more valuable. Review Describe the impact that the Spanish had on Native Americans in North America. Describe the impact that the French had on Native Americans in North America. Describe the impact that the Dutch had on Native Americans in North America. What is Mercantilism ?