Colonial Mexico
The Viceroyalty of New Spain
Consolidating New Spain
 The Spanish Claims on America
 Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
 Casa de Contratación (1503, Seville)
 Council of the Indies (1524)
 Settling New Spain
 Extending the Conquest: Nuño de Guzmán,
Francisco Coronado, Juan de Oñate
 The Legacy of Cortes
 The Threat of Foreign Competition
Administering an Empire
 The Viceroyalty of New Spain
 The “Republic of Spaniards”
 The Viceroy
 Antonio de Mendoza, Luis de Velasco (the elder)
 The Audiencia
 Oidores
 The Visitador: Royal Oversight
 Corregidores, Alcaldes Mayores, or
The Local Context
 The Cabildo [Ayuntamiento]
 Town Councils
 Tensions between Local and Royal Agendas
 The Growth of Local Aristocracies
 Peninsulares and Criollos: The
Distinction Emerges
The “Republic of the
Corregidores de Indios
The Role of the Cacique
Indian Depopulation
The “Indian Question”
 The Encomienda
 The Power of Encomenderos
 The New Laws of the Indies (1542)
 Bartolomé de Las Casas and Juan Ginés de
Sepúlveda (the 1550 debate)
 The Repartimiento
The Spanish Imperial
 The Imperial Monopoly
 Mercantilism
 A Fragmentation of Authority
 The State as All-Present, but Not AllPowerful
 “I Obey but Do Not Comply.”
The Economy of New
 The Example of Cortes
 The Advance of the Hacienda
 Hacendados
 Marriage and Entail
 An Unstable Elite, at first
 Agriculture & Livestock
 Mining
 Zacatecas, San Luis Postosí
 The Quinto (Royal Fifth)
 The Beginnings of Manufacturing
 Obrajes
Alcoman Monastery
Altar at National Cathedral
Interior View, Cholula Cathedral
San Jose Mission, San Antonio
Yaxcabá (in the Yucatán)
The Church in Colonial
The Spanish “Patronato Real”
Secular and Regular Clergy
The Church vs. the Encomenderos
The Accession of Phillip II (1559)
 Eroding the Church’s Position
 The Work of Conversion
 The Inquisition, 1571
 “Syncretism”
 Wordliness
 Fueros, Property Accumulation
Colonial Society
 The Vagaries of Race
Peninsulares, Criollos
Becoming “White”
 The Status and Role of Women
 Population in Mexico