High Intensity Discharge (HID)
Presented by: Your Name HERE
Universal Lighting Technologies
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HID Family: Universal’s Offering
Universal is the technology leader in every category of HID ballasts covering every
lamp application. Universal stocks and delivers ultra-reliable HID ballasts.
Magnetic HID Ballasts:
•Cover all HID lamp types ranging from 35 to 1650
watts including: Metal Halide, Pulse Start Metal
Halide and High Pressure Sodium.
•Available in dedicated, Tri (120, 277, 347), Quad
(120, 208, 240, 277), or Multi-5 (120, 208, 240,
277, 480) voltage ballasts.
•“502K” distributor kit covers tri-tap.
•These replacement kits include all mounting
hardware, capacitor, and ignitor ( if needed) in a
single box.
Multi-5® Uni-Pak™ HID Ballast and Lamp
Replacement Kits (Core and Coil)
•For High Pressure Sodium and Metal Halide lamp
types.
•Easy ballast replacement kit in one easy-to-carry
box.
•Includes all the components of the distributor
replacement kits with a 5-tap ballast and a
matched lamp.
•This kit is also known as the “555.”
HID Lampholders
•Cover the “standard” E26 medium base and E39
mogul base applications
•Have a large lineup of low wattage HID lampholders
as well including GX10, G12, G8.5, and more.
U n i v e r s a l ’s H I D Fa m i l y
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HID Family: Primary Benefits
Magnetic HID Benefits:

Trip tap (120, 277, 347), Quad tap (120, 208, 240, 277) and Multi-5 (120, 208, 240, 277, 480):
 Color-coded leads for easier installation.
 Simple installation instruction and troubleshooting tips included.
 Adjustable mounting brackets for various mounting configurations.
 Prewired capacitor (plus ignitor if needed) saves installation time and reduces wiring errors.

High Pressure Sodium Ballasts: These lamp systems provide maximum energy efficiency where color quality is not a
primary concern. Available with constant wattage autotransformers and high reactance lag circuit types. Wattages from 35
– 1000.

Probe Start Metal Halide Ballasts: These lamp systems are an efficient lighting source with good color rendering.
Universal’s HID ballasts are available for lamps from 175W to 1650W with constant wattage autotransformer circuit type.

Pulse Start Metal Halide Ballasts: These lamp systems provide high efficiency lighting source with good color rendering.
Universal’s HID ballasts are available for lamps from 35W to 1000W with constant wattage autotransformers and high
reactance lag circuit types. Metal Halide: Pulse Start provides these additional benefits over Probe Start: Better cold
starting, improved color rendering, faster warm-up times, shorter re-strike times, cooler operation, and reduced color shift.
Multi-5 Uni-Pak (Ballast/Lamp) Replacement Kit Benefits:
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Five taps in one: 120, 208, 240, 277 and 480 volt.
Packages the right ballast and lamp to ensure system compatibility – all in an easy-to carry box.
Multi-5 ballast for the correct voltage every time (120, 208, 240, 277, 480).
Matched lamp to ensure system compatibility.
All mounting hardware and components in one easy to carry box.
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HID Lamps
Three different types:
1.
Mercury (Banned by DOE)
2.
High Pressure Sodium (HPS):


3.
Ceramic arc tube is populated with mercury and sodium
vapors under high pressure.
High voltage applied across arc tube causes the vapors to
generate an orange/yellow light.
Metal Halide (MH) Family (Standard Metal Halide and
Pulse Start Metal Halide):



Arc tube is populated with mercury and metal halide salt
gases under high pressure.
High voltage applied across cathode causes the salt atoms to
generate UV and visible light.
Bulb wall filters out UV and allows visible light to pass
through.
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Pulse Start Arc Tube
One of the key differences between the pulse
start metal halide lamp and standard metal
halide lamps is that the standard MH lamp has
a starting electrode as part of the arc tube.
Removal of this starting electrode improves the
efficiency and lighting quality of the lamp.
Standard Metal Halide
Starting
Electrode
Because there is no starting electrode, pulse
start lamps require the ballast to have an
ignitor.
Pulse Start Metal Halide
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Quartz and Ceramic Metal Halide
Many metal halide lamp wattages are available with quartz or ceramic arc
tubes.
– Quartz is the older technology that has typically been installed.
– Ceramic arc tubes provide better color rendering. (Whiter whites!)
• Ceramic lamps are available for pulse start lamps only.
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High Pressure Sodium Lamps
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lamps are the most
efficient type of HID lamp but since their color
is not very good, HPS lamps may not be ideal
for some applications.
Pulse Start MH lamps also provide very good
efficiencies.
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Lamp Type
HPS
Metal Halide
Pulse Start MH
Ceramic MH
Lumens per Watt
60-125
60-100
90-115
60-90
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HID Lumen Maintenance
With Magnetic HID ballasts ...
Over the life of an HID lamp, the light output drops off.
HPS drops off the least, followed by Pulse Start MH.
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HID Colors
HID lamps vary in their ability to provide quality “white” lighting. The chart below
identifies the lamp color and other attributes. The higher the CRI (color rendering
index), the closer the lamp color is to having a full true white color spectrum.
Lamp Type
HPS
Metal Halide
Pulse Start MH
Ceramic MH
Quality
Poor
Good
Better
Best
Color
Orange/Yellow
Closer to White
Closer to White
White
Typical CRI
20
60
60 & 70
80
Ceramic MH provides the highest Color Rendering (CRI) available for HID
lamps.
HPS and Mercury provide the lowest CRI.
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HID Warm-Up & Re-Strike
All HID lamps require time to warm up when initially turned on and have a re-strike
delay time when they are inadvertently shut off during operation.
Lamp Type
HPS
Metal Halide
Ceramic MH
Pulse Start MH
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Warm-Up
Time
3-4 Minutes
2-5 Minutes
2-5 Minutes
2-3 Minutes
Re-Strike Time
<1 Minute
10-20 Minutes
10-20 Minutes
6-10 Minutes
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HID Starting
High Pressure Sodium
Some HID lamps require an external ignitor
to be used as part of the lighting circuit.
 External Ignitor Required
Pulse Start Metal Halide
 External Ignitor Required
When these are required, they are included
with the ballast.
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Metal Halide
 Internal Electrode: No external
ignitor required
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HID End-of-Life
Unlike fluorescent lamps, HID lamps “fail” differently than just extinguishing. They
also vary in end-of-life between lamp types.
• High Pressure Sodium
– Arc voltage rises to a point where ballast cannot sustain it and the lamp
repeatedly cycles on and off.
• Metal Halide
– Similar to mercury, long lamp life but lumen depreciation (reduced light
output) dictates usable life.
Universal Lighting Technologies
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HID Lamp ANSI Matrix
Ballast specifications identify the HID lamps that are to be used by their ANSI lamp
designations.
This is to prevent compatibility problems in identifying lamp types of the same
wattage that require different ballast types.
ANSI Lamp Designation Matrix
Lamp Wattage
Type
35
Mercury
HPS
S76
50
H45
H46
S68
70
H43
S62
100
H38
H44
150
175
H39
200
250
H37
320
350
400
H33
450
600
750
1000 1500
H36
S55
S66 S50
S51
S106 S111 S52
S56
M107 M57
M58
M59
M47 M48
M90 M102 M152 M136 M153 M154 M131 M155 M144
M149 M141
S54
Standard MH
Pulse Start MH M130 M110 M98
M139
Ceramic MH M130
M140 M142
M143
Notes: H45 is a 40W lamp
M130 is a 39W lamp
H43 listed in 70W column is actually a 75W lamp
M152 175W PSMH replaces M137 175W PSMH
M153 250W PSMH replaces M138 250W PSMH
M154 320W PSMH replaces M132 320W PSMH
M155 400W PSMH replaces M135 400W PSMH
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Magnetic Ballast Circuit Types
1. Reactor (Rx)
2. High Reactance (Lag)
3. Constant Wattage Autotransformer (CWA)
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Reactors (Rx)
Reactor ballasts have a single coil and are designed for a single input voltage.
They are connected with an ignitor to the lamp and can also have a capacitor for power
factor correction.
Reactor ballasts perform poorly when the power line fluctuates (poor regulation).
Advantages
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Single Coil
Small Size
Good Efficiency
Lowest Cost
 Available
Poor Power Factor
Poor Regulation
Dip Tolerance 25%
Single Voltage
for Low Wattage MH & HPS 35-150 W
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High Reactance (Lag)
High Reactance ballasts have two coils and are available with multiple taps for different
input voltages.
They are low power factor but can have a capacitor for power factor correction.
Advantages
Disadvantages
•
•
Can be used with any input voltage
•
Heavier, larger, and more expensive than
reactor type
Higher losses than reactors
Notes
Used for multi-tap, low wattage HID lamps
 Performance the same as a reactor
 Also called HxNPF & HxHpf
 Capacitor required for High Power Factor

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Constant Wattage Autotransformer (CWA)
CWA ballasts have two coils and are available with multiple taps for different input
voltages. They are high power factor and provide good regulation with the power
line.
Advantages
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
Better power line regulation
High power factor
Better voltage dip tolerance
Higher cost
Weight
Not as efficient as reactors or electronic HID
Notes

Most common ballast on wattages above 150W.
Universal Lighting Technologies
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Magnetic Ballast Construction Types
1. Core and Coil
2.

Most common type of HID ballast

Constructed with one or two coils and steel laminations

Available for CWA, High Reactance, and Reactors

A wide variety of input voltages are available
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Ballast is installed in an enclosed fixture housing

Capacitor and starter supplied (If needed)
Encased and Potted
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Primarily used for indoor downlighting applications where quiet
operation is essential.
All of the components are enclosed in a fluorescent-style ballast
can and are thermally protected.
Available for most lamp types up to 400W
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Ballast Factor
Unlike fluorescent ballasts, which are offered with a variety of ballast factors, HID
ballasts have ballast factors of 1.00.
– Lumens from the lamp are identified by the lamp manufacturer.
• System lumens will take into account lamp lumens and fixture efficiencies.
• Ballasts are not part of the system lumen equation.
– Unique applications may have ballast factors less than 1.00, but these are not very
common.
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Temperature Codes
UL Bench Top Rise Ratings
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HID ballasts have temperature codes to identify the temperature rises at which they operate.
–
–
The best rating is “A,” which represents the lowest temperature rise
“J” rating has the highest temperature rise

Temperature codes are primarily used by the fixture manufacturers during their approval
processes.

Replacement products are designed for operation in most applications.
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Capacitors
The majority of HID ballasts use capacitors for lamp current control or power factor
correction. These were once available only in metal cans, but many of them are now
constructed with plastic housings and are referred to as “dry” capacitors.
Capacitor Ratings:
– Capacitors are rated in microfarads and volts.
– Replacement capacitors must be the same microfarads and
equal or higher volts than the capacitor being replaced.
Why choose dry capacitors?
– They are smaller in size.
– The plastic case does not conduct electricity, nor does it
require grounding.
– They can operate at higher temperatures, up to 105° C.
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Ignitors
Many HID lamps require that ignitors (a.k.a. starters) are connected to the lamps to
provide an ignition pulse to start the lamp. When ignitors are required, they are
shipped along with the ballast. There are different types of ignitors that will provide
additional benefits.
•
Standard Ignitor
–
•
Auto Shutoff Ignitor
–
–
•
Excellent choice when the fixture is in a place that is difficult to maintain.
The ignitor will stop pulsing after a predetermined time to minimize wear on the ballast and the ignitor.
Long Distance
–
–
•
Always comes with the ballast if the lamp requires an ignitor.
For use when the ballast is remote-mounted from the lamp.
Standard ignitors are limited from some applications by the distance that they can be mounted from the
lamp.
Instant Restrike
–
For low wattage HPS applications when the need for instant re-strike is required.
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Voltages
Unlike magnetic fluorescent ballasts, many HID ballasts can operate on a variety of
input voltages. These ballasts have separate voltage taps, and they require that the
input voltage to be connected to the appropriate tap. This benefit allows contractors
and distributors to stock fewer ballasts while meeting their requirements.

U.S. HID lighting voltages include 120, 208, 240, 277, and 480 volts.
– Common ballast that meet these are:
• 5-Tap: 120/208/240/277/480V – covers ALL voltages
• Quad Tap: 120/208/240/277V
• 480V w/ 120V tap for standby lighting

Canadian HID lighting voltages include 120, 277, and 347 volts.
– Tri-Tap voltages meet these requirements: 120/277/347V
Universal Lighting Technologies
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HID Family: Applications
Target Segments
HID ballasts are ideal for a broad
range of applications.
Target replacement HID ballasts
with Facility Managers over
multi-location facilities with
parking.
 Commercial & Industrial Sites:

Distribution Centers, Warehouses, Factories, etc.
 Convention Centers:

Large meeting space, loading warehouse, trade show floor
spaces, etc.
 Education:
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Gymnasiums, parking, etc.
 Government / Municipalities:

Large indoor or outdoor public places
 Healthcare:
HID is commonly used for:
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Area lighting (e.g. parking)
Roadways (e.g. underground
roundabouts, tunnels, highways, etc.)
Outdoor lighting
Highbays
Exterior lighting, outdoor wall packs
High ceiling downlighting
Large indoor areas with high ceilings.
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 Parking Structures, Stations & Garages:
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Garage, flood, pedestrian, pole, specialty indoor/outdoor,
etc.
 Retail:
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Grocery stores, convenience stores, shopping center
developers, furniture dealers, etc.
 Sports Arenas:
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Parking structures for visitors/doctors, large lobby atriums,
etc.
Coliseums, Arenas, Stadiums, Athletic Fields, etc.
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HID Family: Quick Cross Reference
Universal’s HID product line covers more lamp types and lamp wattages than most of
our competitors. It is interesting to see the “holes” in competitor’s lines where they
are limited or have no offering.
Always consult the current spec sheet for details: http://ultballastspecs.unvlt.com/
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For Additional Information, please visit our website www.unvlt.com or
use your QR Reader for Smart Phone instant access.
THANK YOU
Website: www.unvlt.com
Nashville Customer Service: (800) 862-8666
Universal Technical Engineering Services: 1-800-BALLAST (1-800-225-5278)
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