Italian & German Unification
Italy
(1859-1860)
1. Why
wasn’t Italy
united before
1850?
Antiquity:
Roman Empire
1. Why
wasn’t Italy
united before
1850?
Middle Ages:
competing city-states
1. Why
wasn’t Italy
united before
1850?
Congress of Vienna (1815):
reorganized provinces
2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification
Approach #1:
Goal:
 centralized democratic
republic
 universal male suffrage
Advocate: Giuseppe Mazzini
FAILED
(too radical)
Mazzini,
writer/philosopher/politician
2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification
Approach #2:
Goal:
 federation
 pres. = progressive pope
Advocate: Vincenzo Gioberti
Gioberti,
Catholic priest
FAILED
(Pope Pius IX opposed)
2. 1815-1848: 3 basic approaches to unification
Approach #3:
Goal:
 union under leadership
of Sardinia-Piedmont
Advocate: ???
WINNER!!!
Victor Emmanuel,
King of Sardinia-Piedmont
(1849-1861)
3. Key Events
Early 1860:
unification of N Italy
Late 1860:
unification of N & S
1866:
Venice added
1870:
Rome added
4a. The Soul: Mazzini (1805-1872)
The Duties of Man:
“O my brothers, love your
Country! Our country is
our Home, the house that
God has given us, placing
therein a numerous
family that loves us, and
whom we love…”
The Idealist Patriot
4b. The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861)
Unification of Northern Italy
 1850s: strengthen Sardinia
 1858-1859:
Quest to get LombardyVenetia from Austria!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ally w/ France
goad Austria into war
Franco-Sardinian victory!
France pulls support …
separate peace w/ Austria:
Italy gets Lombardy only
Cavour resigns
Noble Statesman in
Sardinian Government, 1850-1861
4b. The Brains: Cavour (1810-1861)
Unification of Northern Italy
 1858-1859:
Central Italy to the rescue –
demand unification!
 1860:
1.
Cavour returns & France
re-pledges support
2.
N. Italy unified (w/o
Venetia)
4c. The Sword: Garibaldi (1807-1882)
Unification of North & South
Red Shirts
 1860:
1.
2.
3.
Military Leader
conquer Sicily
plan to invade Papal States
 stopped by Cavour
Cavour orders plebiscite 
S. states vote to join N
5. What did the new, unified Italy look like?
Government:
Divisions between:
 parliamentary monarchy
 social classes (rich/poor)
(Victor Emmanuel)
 regions (N/S)
 limited suffrage
Germany
(1871)
1a. Entities:
Holy Roman Empire
loose affiliation of
≈300 German states
800-1806
“First Reich”
1b. Entities:
German Confederation
loose affiliation of 39
German states
1815-1866
replaced HRE
purpose: military
defense
ineffective federal diet
met at Frankfurt under
Austrian pres.
1c. Entities: Schleswig-Holstein
 Schleswig-Holstein:



mostly German
Holstein = member of
German Confederation
ruled by Denmark
 1848 & 1864: WARS!
Denmark vs. Germany
over control of S-H
1d. Entities: Zollverein
 German customs union
founded in 1834 to ↑
economy
 Prussia = leader
 included all German
states but Austria b/c
Austria did not want to ↓
tariffs
2a. People: Frederick William IV
 King of Prussia (r. 1840-1861)
 1848:


new liberal constitution
accepts Prussian-led
German unification
 1849: tries to be elected
emperor of unified Germany
 1850: Austria & Russia
successfully oppose Prussia’s
unification plans
2b. People: William I
 King of Prussia
(r. 1861-1888)
 1st German Emperor
(r. 1871-1888)
2c. People: Otto von Bismarck
 1st German Chancellor
(1871-1890) … “Iron
Chancellor”
 Minister-President of
Prussia (1862-1873)
 background: Prussian,
Junker, conservative
 led German unification
3. 1st unification attempt: 1848 Revolution
 Driving forces:
1.
2.
Liberalism: make
absolutist Prussia a liberal
constitutional monarchy
Nationalism: unite
Germany
 Events:
1.
2.
Constituent Assembly
(Berlin) – liberal
constitution for Prussia
National Assembly
(Frankfurt) – constitution
for unified Germany
 Outcome: FAILURE!!!!
1.
2.
Fred Will IV makes
conservative constitution
for Prussia
Austria opposes unification
4. Obstacles to German Unification
A. Denmark
B. Austria
C. Conservatism vs. Liberalism in Prussia
4a. Denmark
 Denmark vs. Prussia & Austria over control of S-H
 First Schleswig War (1848) = inconclusive
 How obstacle overcome: Second Schleswig War
(1864) = Denmark defeated
4b. Austria
 Austria vs. Prussia over control of German
affairs



Austria opposes Prussia’s 1848 unification attempt
Austria refuses Zollverein membership
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
 How obstacle overcome: Prussian victory in
Austro-Prussian War
4c. Liberalism vs. Conservatism in Prussia
 Liberals: Prussian parliament
 Conservatives: William I & Bismarck
 Events:
 1862: parliament rejects William’s budget
 1862: William appoints Bismarck chief minister
 1862-1866: Bismarck rules w/o parliament (“blood & iron”)
 1866: indemnity bill
 How obstacle overcome: liberals & Bismarck align in
common pursuit of unification
5a. Unification: Austro-Prussian War (1866)
 Cause:


Prussia wants to control
northern German
Confederation
war to drive Austria out of
German affairs
 Outcome:



Prussian victory
Austria withdraws
***creation of North German
Confederation***
North German
Confederation
5b. Unification: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
 Cause:


drive south German states to
unify with the north
France = common enemy
 Outcome:




German Empire / “Second Reich”
(1871-1918)
Prussian victory
***German unification
achieved***
 German nationalism
harsh peace for France
6. What did the new, unified Germany look like?
 25 states
 parliamentary monarchy
 strong national government:
 emperor (Kaiser)
 chancellor
 2-house parliament

Reichstag = lower house (universal male suffrage)
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Italian & German Unification