MIDDLE EAST HISTORY
H2a
H2b
Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after
the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.
• The Ottoman Empire controlled much
of modern day Southwest Asia from
1300 until the end of World War I.
• The Ottoman Empire aligned itself
with the Central Powers in WWI
(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria,
etc)
• The Central Powers lost the war.
Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after
the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.
• European politicians partitioned
(divided up) the area known as the
Ottoman Empire at the end of the
war.
• They paid no attention to the religious
or ethnic groups living in the area
when they drew the new boundaries
Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after
the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.
• They did not consider nationalism
(the idea that countries are most
successful if the people who live there
share some common cultural, historic
or religious beliefs).
• As a result, there has been a lot of
conflict.
Question 1
• What led to the end of the Ottoman Empire at the
close of WWI?
a. The Ottomans were on the losing side of the war
along with Germany and other members of the central
powers.
b. The Empire spent too much money on buildings
and new roads and went bankrupt.
c. The people in the Empire were starving because a
long drought had ruined agriculture.
d. The Ottoman government was overthrown by a
revolt of factory workers who were unemployed when
the war ended
Question 2
• Who drew up the boundaries of the new
countries created from the Ottoman Empire at
the end of WWI?
a.
b.
c.
d.
United States
Ottoman rulers
European politicians
Middle Eastern governments
Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the
modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious
connections to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and
Zionism.
• Palestine was created from the old
Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI.
• Important as the birthplace of
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
• Torah, Bible, and Koran (Quran)
share some of the same history.
• Many religious sites in Palestine
sacred to all 3 religions (especially in
Jerusalem).
Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the
modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious
connections to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and
Zionism.
• Before WWII Palestine was divided into
two sections. Transjordan to the east of
the Jordan River; Palestine to the west.
• British were given control of Palestine until
a permanent government could be
established.
• Most of the people living in Palestine were
Palestinian Arabs.
• Large numbers of Jewish settlers had
been coming since the 1880s.
Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the
modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious
connections to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and
Zionism.
• Zionism is the belief that the Jews should
have a homeland in the part of Palestine
where the Jewish people lived during
Biblical times.
• Zionists are those people who believe in
Zionism
• Conflicts began between the Jewish
settlers and the Palestinian Arabs
Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the
modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious
connections to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and
Zionism.
• The Holocaust was a time (during WWII)
when the Jewish people suffered horribly
at the hands of the Nazi government.
• There was widespread anti-Semitism
(hatred of the Jews simply because they
practiced Judaism) in Europe.
• At the end of the war many countries felt
guilty as they learned of the atrocities
suffered by the Jews.
Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the
modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious
connections to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and
Zionism.
• In 1948, the newly created United Nations
voted to create a homeland for the Jews in
part of Palestine.
• This became the state of Israel.
• Palestinians living in the area were
unhappy and they and other Arab
countries refused to recognize Israel.
• War broke out in May 1948.
• The Israelis won and claimed lands not
part of the original plan.
Question 1
•
Which describes the Holocaust?
a. The murder of millions of European Jews during
WWII
b. The destruction of all European governments
during WWII
c. The bombing of towns and villages in England and
Germany during WWII.
d. The Russian policy of burning ground behind them
as they retreated to stop the German invasion.
Question 2
Why did so many countries in the United Nations feel it
was right to create Israel in 1948?
a. There was no one else living on the land at that
time.
b. Many felt the Jews deserved help due to their
suffering in the Holocaust.
c. Arab countries in the area supported the creation
of a homeland for the Jews in Palestine.
d. All national groups in the former Ottoman Empire
were being given homelands at the same time.
Question 3
What is Zionism?
a. The idea that all religious groups should
have their own homeland
b. The plan to let Arabs and Jews share the
land in Palestine equally.
c. The hope that all governments will be
based on religious principles
d. The belief that Jews deserved to return to a
homeland in Zion where they had lived in
Biblical times.
Question 4
What world organization created the new state of
Israel in 1948 as a homeland for the Jews?
a.
b.
c.
d.
The United Nations
The European Union
The League of Nations
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries
Question 5
How did the Arabs living in Palestine in 1948 feel
about the creation of the new state of Israel?
a. They supported it fully
b. They rejected it as unfair to them.
c. The Arab population in Palestine was
largely unaffected by the new state.
d. They agreed to try to work it out
although they were unhappy about the
decision.
Question 6
Which countries border the Gaza Strip?
a. Iraq and Jordan
b. Israel and Egypt
c. Lebanon and Syria
d. Israel and the West Bank
Question 7
What is the approximate location of the
Dead Sea from Jerusalem?
a. Nearly 25 miles east
b. Nearly 25 miles west
c. About 15 miles southeast
d. About 15 miles southwest
Question 8
What country is found at 31oN and 34oE?
a. Egypt
b. Israel
c. Jordan
d. Saudi Arabia