The Crisis of the Imperial
Order, 1900-1929
Chapter 28
Origins of the Crisis in Europe and
the Middle East
The Ottoman Empire and the
Balkans

By the late 19th century the Ottomans
were on the decline

Young Turks and Germany
Nationalism, Alliances, and Military
Strategy

Causes of WW1

Nationalism
Undermined large multiethnic empires
 Crusade for liberty
 Revenge for past injustices
 Heal class divisions




Alliance system
Militarism
Germany’s ambition

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in
1914
Assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand


Two Alliances


Triple Alliance
Triple Entente
The “Great War” and the Russian
Revolutions, 1914-1918
Stalemate, 1914-1918

Western Front


Unbroken line of trenches
For __ years the war was inconclusive
The Home Front and the War
Economy

Demands for trench warfare



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Stringent controls (rationing)
Recruitment of:
British naval blockade
Africa


British and French overran German colonies
Used for crops, labor, and soldiers

The U.S. capitalized on the war. How?
The Ottoman Empire at War

Allies with Germany in 1914



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Unsuccessful against Russia
Deport of Armenians
Closed Dardanelles Straits
British subversion

Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca

Balfour Declaration of 1917


“establishment of Jewish national homeland
in Palestine”
Britain troops in Mesopotamia
Double Revolution in Russia, 1917


Russian incompetent by 1916
Czar (tsar) overthrown in 1917

Vladimir Lenin’s “Bolshevik Revolution”
The End of the War in Western
Europe, 1917-1918

German resumption of unrestricted submarine
warfare brought the U.S. into war in April 1917.

Zimmerman Letter
The arrival of U.S. allowed
Allies to counterattack
against Germany.
 Armistice signed on
November 11th, 1918.

Peace and Dislocation in Europe,
1919-1929
The Impact of the War

Effects



Physical destruction
Refugees
Immigrants to:


Closed door policy
Influenza epidemic 1918-1919

Killed over __ million people
Hastened mines, railroad, and
factory production

The Peace Treaties

Paris Peace Conference


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
David Lloyd George
Woodrow Wilson
Georges Clemenceau
Treaty of Versailles

Humiliated Germany




War guilt clause
Reparations
Demilitarization
Austro-Hungarian Empire fell

New countries created from:
Russian Civil War and the New
Economic Policy

Russian Civil War
Continued 3 more years
 By 1921, Communists defeated their political
enemies
 By 1922, the Soviet republic
of Ukraine and Russia merged
to create ________.



Soviet Union built a modern socialist
industrial economy by extracting resources
from the peasants in order to pay for
industrialization.
Lenin dies in 1924, _____ succeeds.
An Ephemeral Peace


The decade after the end of the war can
be divided into two periods: five years of
painful recovery and readjustment (19191923) followed by six years of growing
peace and prosperity (1924-1929).
Germany


French occupation
inflation
China and Japan: Contrasting
Destinies
Social and Economic Change

China


Rapid population, unfavorable land, heavy
taxation, and flooding
Social tension

Japan



Non-arable land, natural resources, natural
disasters
Industrialization Search
and Results
economic growth caused
social tension between zaibatsu and poor
farmers
Prosperity depended on ____ and ____.
Page 13
Revolution and War, 1900-1918

China


Boxer Affair in 1900 led to desire of overthrow
of Qing and modernization of country.
Sun Yat-sen elected president but presidency
turned over to general Yuan Shikai

Japan



Joined ____ in WW1
Benefit from:
Conquered German colonies in China

Twenty One Demands
Chinese Warlords and the
Guomindang, 1919-1929

Paris Peace Conference

Allowed Japan to retain China


Protests in Beijing 1919
Chinese warlords
Supported army through plunder
and arbitrary taxation


Result:

In the 1920s China reorganized forming
the Chinese Communist Party and
industrial modernization. However,
corruption and incompetent administration
kept China poor.
The New Middle East
The Mandate System

German and Ottoman were given as
colonies to the Allies.


German was Class B
Ottoman was Class A
Britain- Palestine, Iraq, and Trans-Jordan
 France- Syria and Lebanon

The Rise of Modern Turkey


Mustafa Kemal formed a nationalist government
in 1919 and reconquered Anatolia and area
around Constantinople from W. Europe.
Modernization






Secular
Alphabet
Family
Women
Dress
resistance
Arab Lands and the Question of
Palestine

Changes in Middle East




Nomads
Population grew 50%
Westernization
Maghrib (Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco)


France monopolized government jobs and businesses
Arabs and Berbers remained poor and suffered from
discrimination

England


declared Iraq and Egypt independent in 1922
Limit wave of Jewish immigration in Palestine
that began in 1920
Society, Culture, and Technology in
the Industrialized World
Class and Gender

Class




Declined and displays of wealth came to be
regarded as _____.
Increase in white collar work
Decline in blue collar. Why?
Women


Suffrage 1915-1934
No effect on politics. Why?
Revolution in the Sciences


Discover of sub-atomic particles, quanta,
Einstein’s theory of relativity undermined
_____’s physics and offered new
opportunity for:
Innovation in social sciences challenged
traditional values.


Sigmund Freud
Emile Durkheim
The New Technologies of Modernity



Airplanes
Radio
Film in 1920s

U.S., Japan, India, Turkey, Egypt


Diffusion on American culture
Health and hygiene

Medicine, sewage treatment, pluming, soap

Result:
Technology and the Environment


Skyscrapers
Automobiles



Replaced horses
Suburbs
Damns and canals

Generate electricity