English Migration: 1610-1660
• Where are
they going?
Focus Question:
• Why did Chesapeake planters shift from using white
indentured servants as laborers to black slaves?
Big Picture:
• VA/MD—similar economies, population, & growth
• Tobacco!
• Indian lands & black labor
Virginia (1639)
• Government
• Royal Colony by James I
• Most legislatures held lifetime
appointments and passed
laws
• Judges & sheriffs appointed
by governor collected taxes
• Religion
• Supporters of Church of
England or Anglican
• Fined for not attending church!
Maryland (1632)
• Government
• Proprietary Colony
• Ruled by Lord Baltimore
• Religion
• Haven for Catholics
• “Headrights system”
• Manor system to separate
Catholics and Protestants
• “Act for Religious Toleration”
1649
Death, Gender, & Kinship
• Need for male indentured servants
• Death rates high to disease
• Widows remarried, but lack of females led to low population
Tobacco Shapes a Region, 1630-1675
• 1618-boom, 1629-bust
• Headrights system made planters wealthy & abuse indentured servants
• Little land/resources for freed servant = destitution
17c Population
in the Chesapeake
100000
80000
60000
White
40000
Black
20000
0
1607
1630
1650
1670
1690
WHY this large increase in black popul.??
Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676
• Wealthy planters had
access to land and furs
• Colonists rebelled by
massacring friendly
Natives.
• Bacon intimidates Gov.
Berkeley, inciting riots.
• Treaty of Middle
Plantation 1677-peace
with return of POW &
land
Nathaniel
Bacon
Governor
William
Berkeley
From Servitude to Slavery
• 1705—Racial slavery
legal
• Elites used race to give
whites a higher status
• Slavery replaced the need
for indentured servants
• Wages rose in England
discouraging immigration
• Most slaves by 1690 were
imported directly from W.
Africa
Richard Frethorne’s
1623 Letter
In-Class Activity:
1. Describe the life of the indentured servant as
presented in this letter.
2. What are some of the problems he and the
other servants experienced?
3. What are their biggest fears?
4. What does a historian learn about life in the
17c Chesapeake colony?
Focus Question
• Why did colonial New Englanders abandon John Winthrop’s
vision of a “city upon a hill”?
Big Picture:
• NE based on religion
• “Great Migration” of Separatist Puritans to NE
• King Charles II outlawed
the Calvinist teachings in
England (1620s)
• Two groups formed:
• Puritans: Moved b/c church
reformed too slowly.
• Separatists: Completely
separated from the Church
of England.
• All went to Massachusetts
• John Winthrop created
“Modell of Christian
Charity”
• First governor of Mass.
• Cooperation & no slaves
• Male dominated (only
voters)
Sources of Puritan Migration
• Religious Leadership
• “Saints” or church leaders
had to prove conversion
experiences before church
members
• Church free of state
control
• 1636—Harvard founded
to teach ministers
New England Primer
[1689]
• Roger Williams-popular
Salem, MASS preacher
• Puritans should break from
CoE
• Exiled & created Rhode
Island
• Colony for religious
toleration
• Anne Hutchinson
• Puritan church/saints
corrupt
• Women needed a stronger
role in church
• A “holy” life ≠ salvation
• Exiled
• Land was given to church members
• Women had no legal rights
• Long life expectancy
• Immunities & male to female ratio
• Relied heavily on shipping (rum, lumber, furs)
• Government fixed prices (just price)
• Church membership declined
• Less were having “conversion experiences”
• Created “halfway covenant”
Patriarchal Family
• 90% of NA population
destroyed (disease &
deforestation)
• “Praying towns” created
• 1635—Pequot Wars CT
• Villages burned and NA
pushed out
• King Phillips War 1765
• Metacom or King Phillip
organized local tribes
against Whites
• Failed b/c New
Englanders received help
from Christian NA from NY
Population Comparisons:
New England v. the Chesapeake
• 1691-1693
• Young girls accussing older
female members of being
witches
• Real fear: Puritanism
fading out as colony
matures & progresses.
• By 1693 hundreds die
• Marks the end of
Puritanism and leads
towards materialism.
• Focus Question: What factors facilitated the extension of
slavery from the English Caribbean to the Carolinas?
Big Picture
• Rice in the Carolinas and Sugar in the Caribbean = slaves!
• PA, NY, & NJ = Middle Colonies that were very diverse!
• SP, FR, DU, BR races to colonize
• England monopolized tobacco
• Dutch & French monopolized sugar
• 3 x more slave labor
• “new slavery”
• Navigation Acts-England & Dutch trade sugar & slaves
• English start to immigrate to the Carolinas where the land is
cheaper.
• “Restoration Colony”
1663
• Founded by Locke &
Cooper “proprietors”
• Created Fundamental
Constitution-nobility in
charge of land
• Religious Toleration &
elected assembly
• White farmers left from
West Indies
• Proprietors were ignored
• Slaves were brought to the
Carolinas b/c…
• More immunities & skill
• NA were being captured
as slaves and traded to
other NA for guns!
Settling the “Lower South”
Section 4
• Focus Question: In what ways did the middle colonies differ
from the other English colonial regions?
Big Picture:
• Middle colonies are more diverse and have a balance between
religion and commerce.
New Netherland & New Sweden
• 1638 Swedish colony
• Guns for furs with NA
• Beaver Wars
• Competed with Dutch
• Dutch attacked New Sweden in
1655 making it a part of NN.
• Multi-cultural & multi-religion
• 1664 colony attacked by English
and renamed “New York” (given to
King’s brother Duke of York)
Duke of York’s Original Charter
New York
&
• 1665 Duke of York named
New York a royal colony
• Immigrants included:
• British, French, & New
Englanders
• Lands divided among Dutch
& English
• “New York Patroons”
New Jersey
• Formerly New Netherland
• Granted to William Penn and
VA Gov. Berkely
• Penn’s vision: Quaker haven
• Attracted New Englanders
• W & E NJ
• Protestants vs Quakers
• 1702 one colony
New York
Manors &
Land Grants
Patroonships
Dutch Residue in New York
Early 20c Dutch Revival
Building in NYC.
New York
City
seal.
Names  Harlem, Brooklyn
Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles,
bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].
Pennsylvania “Penns Woods”
• Penn advertised land to encourage
Quaker settlement
• Signed a formal treaty &
purchased from NA
• Religious Toleration
• No slavery!
• Representative assembly
• Dominated by Quakers
• Organized cities in “grid system”
• Philadelphia
Pennsylvania
• Quakers
• Established by George Fox
• “Society of Friends”
• Attracted poor men & women
• Belief in “Inner Light”
•
•
•
•
Emphasis on equality, not status
Pacifists
No church taxes
Kept on hats
• George Keith
• New Quaker leader took followers
back to England
Ethnic Groups
Section 5
Focus Question: How did the French & Spanish colonies in
mainland North American differ from English colonies?
Big Picture
• France dominates Canada
• Spain dominates NM, FL, & TX
• “New France” (Quebec)
• Privately funded by lords
• Populated by
• indentured servants (free
after 3 years)
• Traders-granted “kings girls”
• Missionaries
• Goal: to make ties with NA
to trade & convert to
Catholicism
• Jean Baptiste Colbert
• “Mercantilism”
• 1690 Iroquois peace
• Competition with furs led
to war turning it into a
royal colony
• “Coureurs de bois”
• 1625-Created alliances with NA for
•
•
•
•
Land, labor, & wealth
Missionaries converted
Encomiendas
Cut off traded between NA
• Pueblo Revolt, 1680
•
•
•
•
NA converted and followed Spanish rule
Series of natural disasters led NA to believe they offended their Gods
Spanish responded to revolt by smashing “kivas”
Spain would not return until 1716 to establish permanent colonies
• 1635
• Homes to Spanish
missionaries
• Local NA resist conversion &
slavery
• Suffered attacks from NA in
Carolinas who support
English
• Competition:
• English slave trade to North
• French control over Louisiana