Let’s Review Nationalism>>>
 Nationalism = feeling of belonging and loyalty
to a nation.
 Nationalism was a powerful force that could:
 Create a nation from separate countries
 Break a country up into many nations.
Let’s Review Nationalism>>>
 Nationalism can be a cause of war
(ex. WWI and WWII)
 Nationalism can take many
different forms.
The Italian States Unite, 1859-1870
Barriers to Italian Nationalism
 After Congress of Vienna, Italy was made up of
9 different states:
 Piedmont-Sardinia
(the largest)
 Venetia and Lombardy
 The Papal States
 Other states ruled by
foreign monarchs
Barriers to Italian Nationalism

Geography - mountains split Italy E/W;
the Po river split N/S
Barriers to Italian Nationalism
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Illiteracy
The Pope
Lack of consensus (agreement) in Italy
Lack of European support
Factors That Led to Italian Unification
 Geography
• Italy is isolated
• Alps to the North
• Surrounded by
oceans.
• Isolation lets Italy
develop its own
culture.
Factors That Led to Italian Unification
 History
• Italians are proud of their heritage
• Napoleon’s conquest of Italian states
 Efforts of 3 Men: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour
Giuseppe Mazzini-“Prophet of Italian
Unification”
 A member of the
Carbonari.
 Formed Young
Italy
 Tried revolution
but failed.
Count Camillo di Cavour,
“Architect of Italian Unification”
 “Architect” (planner) of
Piedmont-Sardinia’s
revolt against Austria.
 Encouraged other
Italian states to revolt.
Giuseppe Garibaldi,
“The Sword of Italian Unification”
 Invaded Sicily, urged
them to join
Piedmont-Sardinia
under Victor
Emmanuel.
 “Red Shirts”
 Gave all conquered
lands to Victor
Emmanuel.
How Italy was United
1861: Victor Emmanuel II
crowned King of Italy
1866: Austro-Prussian WarVenetia added
1870-71: Franco-Prussian WarRome added
Problems Faced by a United Italy
 North v. South
 Italy v. Roman Catholic Church
 Unhappy with Gov’t Structure
 No universal suffrage
 Italy lacked industrial
development, agriculture,
and natural resources.
Flash Forward….to WWII and Fascism
How Did Nationalism:
 Unite people into nation-states?
 Topple empires composed of many ethnic
minorities?
 Contribute to the outbreak of wars in the
1800s?
 Balkans: Region in SE Europe. Had Croats,
Albanians, Serbs, Greeks, and Bulgarians. The
“Powder Keg” of Europe
 Austria: Central Europe Empire . Ruled by
Hapsburgs. Torn apart by Nationalism.
 Prussia: Became Germany we know today.
Bismarck was prime minister.
 Franco-Prussian War: War between France and
Prussia. Prussia (Germany) won. Helped unify
Germany.