Royal Government of New France MERCANTILISM AND FIRST GOVERNMENT New France New France was established in 1604 and became a royal province in the new world in 1663. Louis XIV established New France after declaring war on the Iroquois. New France was in North America It stretched from Newfoundland to the Gulf of Mexico when it was at the height of it’s power. New France was separated into five colonies; Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Louisiana. Louis XIV •Also known as the Sun King, Louis became king when he was 4 years old, and he reigned 72 years, the longest reign of a French Monarch •Louis demanded that he take power from the nobles •He wanted to make himself farther and farther away from his peasants •Sent the Filles du Roi to populate New France Government New France was often called a Royal Government. Overall three functionaries ran New France after the King, the Intendant, Governor, and the Bishop. Government The Governor and the Intendant carefully watched the population and brought in more people when needed. The King was still under the control of France. But he was more able to keep things under control. Mother Country The mother country was the homeland of a person. To the new citizens of New France, France was their homeland. The Mother Country was part of a system called Mercantilism. Mercantilism Mercantilism was an economic system that was used to increase the mother countries wealth. (France) The best way to gain money was to buy less and sell more. Merchants sold things to foreign countries. They also bought items to sell within their native countries. Mercantilism The country would produce everything it needed for its people. This cut costs down on imports, while gaining money on exports. Wealth was gained in the mother country at the expense of other countries. Mercantilism That all raw materials made in the Mother country be used in domestic manufacture, since finished goods have a higher value than raw materials. That as much as possible, imports be confined to raw materials that can be finished later. (in the mother country) That opportunities be constantly sought for selling the mother country's goods to other countries. That no foreign goods come in if such goods are sufficiently and suitably supplied at home. New France need’s help In the 1650’s New France was severely under populated They were at risk of falling prey to hostile Iroquois. In 1660, settler Adam Dollard des Ormeaux led a band of men against a much larger Iroquois force; none of the Canadians survived, but they succeeded in turning back the Iroquois invasion. France sends help Therefore Louis XIV made France a royal province in 1663. Now New France could have supplies sent from France and could have a larger military force. New leaders were appointed and a government established. Jean Talon was also sent as First Intendant. Jean Talon Jean Talon was the First Intendant of New France. He encouraged agriculture, fishing, lumbering, and industry, as well as fur trade. His mission was to boost the population, and make it self supportive. He also worked to cause the surrender of the Iroquois. He worked to help improve the royal French army. Jean Talon He established Mercatilism with three levels: nobles, clergy, people. Jean Talon was like a prime minister but he served Louis XIV back in France. He brought around 900 Filles de Roi to new France. Filles de Roi The Filles du Roi (King’s Daughters) were not very attractive, widowed, old, or they could not get married. They were sent to New France in order to help repopulate there. The men would marry, and build a family. Then they would not leave France because they had responsibilities to their family there. Iroquois Rivalry •Not all times in New France was good. •The Iroquois were attacking them. •Fighting was sporadic . •Never open warfare, guerrilla. •Louis de Frontenac tried to establish peace with them, couldn’t. Marquis De Tracy Tracy was an aristocrat a states man and a military leader Tracy was the first governor of New France He claimed war against the Iroquois Tracy and Jean also worked together to repopulate New France Marquis De Tracy After Tracy conquered the Iroquois, the natives learned the French language This helped their trade They were also forced to convert to be Roman Catholics. Francois de Laval • In 1658, de Laval was made Bishop of Quebec •Louis XIV sent him to New France and appointed him as Vicar Apostolic •He founded the Séminaire de Québec, a society of Jesuit priests •This Seminary was to be the training ground for future priests •“ There is not a friend better than Jesus Christ ” The Seigneurial System The Seigneurial System was introduced to New France in 1627 15km Plots that usually ran along the river side. They were divided into smaller plots, but were still long. The Seigneurial System The habitants would pay taxes to use the land. The Seigneurial System was brought to New France because of the St. Lawrence River. It was a source of water, and a means of transportation.