Enzymes

2017-07-31T18:18:02+03:00[Europe/Moscow] en true Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Integrase, Histone deacetylase, Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase, Tryptophan repressor, Amylase, Catalase, Cellulase, DNA polymerase, Neuraminidase, Reverse transcriptase, Telomerase, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Beta-lactamase, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Metallothionein, Sirtuin, Active site, Alanine transaminase, Helicase, RNA polymerase, 17Beta Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Lipoxygenase, Streptokinase, Cholinesterase, Methane monooxygenase, Pancreatin, Argonaute, Alpha-galactosidase, Penicillin binding proteins, DNA methyltransferase, Factor VII, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Transposase, Transglutaminase, Enolase, 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, Colipase, Fumarate reductase, MAG1, Band 3, Capping enzyme, Radical SAM, DsbA, Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases, Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, Reductase, Monoacylglycerol lipase, V-ATPase, Alpha-amylase, Enzyme catalysis, Adenosine deaminase, Aldolase A, Fatty acid desaturase, Pancrelipase, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Glycogen branching enzyme, Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase, Sortase, ER oxidoreductin, DNA ligase, Monooxygenase, Nitrate reductase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme, Carotenoid oxygenase, PCK2, Beta-galactosidase, SWI/SNF, Non-competitive inhibition, GTP cyclohydrolase I, Catechol oxidase, Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase, Dipeptidase, ATP5F1, Bromoperoxidase, Deubiquitinating enzyme, Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, Deiodinase, Duodenal cytochrome B, Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase, Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, Fluorinase, ATP5E, Celloxylanase, MBOAT, Dihydroceramide desaturase, Cas1, PNGase F, Ceramide synthase 5 flashcards Enzymes
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  • Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28, synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase, tryptophan decarboxylase, 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, AAAD, AADC) is a lyase enzyme.
  • Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase
    Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13), often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
  • Integrase
    Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
  • Histone deacetylase
    Histone deacetylases (EC 3.5.1.98, HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O=C-CH3) from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly.
  • Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase
    Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
  • Tryptophan repressor
    Tryptophan repressor (or trp repressor) is a transcription factor involved in controlling amino acid metabolism.
  • Amylase
    An amylase (/ˈæmᵻleɪs/) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
  • Catalase
    Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
  • Cellulase
    Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
  • DNA polymerase
    In molecular biology, DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
  • Neuraminidase
    Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes (EC 3.2.1.18) that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.
  • Reverse transcriptase
    A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
  • Telomerase
    Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
  • Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
    This is sometimes called "charging" or "loading" the tRNA with the amino acid.
  • Beta-lactamase
    Beta-lactamases (β-lactamases) are enzymes (EC 3.5.2.6) produced by bacteria (also known as penicillinase) that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase
    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 1.2.1.3) are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation (dehydrogenation) of aldehydes.
  • Metallothionein
    Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins.
  • Sirtuin
    Sirtuin or Sir2 proteins are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity.
  • Active site
    In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
  • Alanine transaminase
    Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2).
  • Helicase
    Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
  • RNA polymerase
    RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol) (Ribonucleic acid), also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA.
  • 17Beta Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.51, beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 17-ketoreductase, 17beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 17β-HSD, 17-ketosteroid oxidoreductases, HSD17B, 17-ketosteroid reductases, 17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyse the dehydrogenation of 17-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis.
  • Lipoxygenase
    Lipoxygenases (EC 1.13.11.-) are a family of iron-containing enzymes most of which catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids containing a cis,cis-1,4- pentadiene structure as shown in the following reaction: Fatty acid + O2 = fatty acid hydroperoxide Lipoxygenases are found in plants, animals and fungi.
  • Streptokinase
    Streptokinase (SK) is an enzyme secreted by several species of streptococci that can bind and activate human plasminogen.
  • Cholinesterase
    In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
  • Methane monooxygenase
    Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.
  • Pancreatin
    Pancreatin is a mixture of several digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine cells of the pancreas.
  • Argonaute
    The Argonaute protein family plays a central role in RNA silencing processes, as essential catalytic components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC).
  • Alpha-galactosidase
    Alpha-galactosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties from glycolipids and glycoproteins.
  • Penicillin binding proteins
    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are a group of proteins that are characterized by their affinity for and binding of penicillin.
  • DNA methyltransferase
    In biochemistry, the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA.
  • Factor VII
    Factor VII (EC 3.4.21.21, blood-coagulation factor VIIa, activated blood coagulation factor VII, formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade.
  • Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (also γ-glutamyltransferase, GGT, gamma-GT; EC 2.3.2.2) is a transferase (a type of enzyme) that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-glutamyl functional groups from molecules such as glutathione to an acceptor that may be an amino acid, a peptide or water (forming glutamate).
  • Transposase
    Transposase is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyzes the movement of the transposon to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism.
  • Transglutaminase
    A transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine.
  • Enolase
    Enolase, also known as phosphopyruvate hydratase, is a metalloenzyme responsible for the catalysis of the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the ninth and penultimate step of glycolysis.
  • 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is the name of a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ ⇌ an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.
  • Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase
    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.49) is a glycoside hydrolase from bacteria and animals, also known as nagalase.
  • Colipase
    Colipase is a protein co-enzyme required for optimal enzyme activity of pancreatic lipase.
  • Fumarate reductase
    Fumarate reductase is the enzyme that converts fumarate to succinate, and is important in microbial metabolism as a part of anaerobic respiration.
  • MAG1
    DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase is an enzyme that in yeast is encoded by the MAG1 gene.
  • Band 3
    Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), is a protein that is encoded by the SLC4A1 gene in humans.
  • Capping enzyme
    A capping enzyme (CE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the 5' cap to messenger RNA molecules that are in the process of being synthesized in the cell nucleus during the first stages of gene expression.
  • Radical SAM
    Radical SAM is a designation for a superfamily of enzymes that use a [4Fe-4S]+ cluster to reductively cleave S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to generate a radical, usually a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, as a critical intermediate.
  • DsbA
    DsbA is a bacterial thiol disulfide oxidoreductases (TDOR).
  • Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases
    Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases catalyse the interchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron carriers and the two-electron-carrying nicotinamide dinucleotides.
  • Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase
    Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDPKs, also NDP Kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates.
  • Reductase
    A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.
  • Monoacylglycerol lipase
    Monoacylglycerol lipase, also known as MAG lipase, MAGL, MGL or MGLL is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the MGLL gene.
  • V-ATPase
    Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved evolutionarily ancient enzyme with remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms.
  • Alpha-amylase
    α-Amylase is a protein enzyme EC 3.
  • Enzyme catalysis
    Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
  • Adenosine deaminase
    Adenosine Deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme (EC 3.5.4.4) involved in purine metabolism.
  • Aldolase A
    Aldolase A (ALDOA, or ALDA), also known as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDOA gene on chromosome 16.
  • Fatty acid desaturase
    A fatty acid desaturase is an enzyme that removes two hydrogen atoms from a fatty acid, creating a carbon/carbon double bond.
  • Pancrelipase
    Pancrelipases are commercial mixtures of pig-derived pancreatic amylase (a hydrolase acting on starch), pancreatic lipase, and chymotrypsin (a protease).
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
    Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13.11.34) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
  • Glycogen branching enzyme
    Glycogen branching enzyme is an enzyme that adds branches to the growing glycogen molecule during the synthesis of glycogen, a storage form of glucose.
  • Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase
    In enzymology, coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase, also known as methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) or most systematically as 2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonate:N-(7-thioheptanoyl)-3-O-phosphothreonine S-(2-sulfoethyl)thiotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the formation of methane.
  • Sortase
    Sortase refers to a group of prokaryotic enzymes that modify surface proteins by recognizing and cleaving a carboxyl-terminal sorting signal.
  • ER oxidoreductin
    ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) is an oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyses the formation and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes.
  • DNA ligase
    In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 6.5.1.1) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
  • Monooxygenase
    Monooxygenases are enzymes that incorporate one hydroxyl group into substrates in many metabolic pathways.
  • Nitrate reductase
    Nitrate reductases are molybdoenzymes that reduce nitrate (NO−3) to nitrite (NO−2).
  • S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme
    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (EC 2.5.1.6) (also known as methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT)) is an enzyme that creates S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) by reacting methionine (a non-polar amino acid) and ATP (the basic currency of energy).
  • Carotenoid oxygenase
    Carotenoid oxygenases are a family of enzymes involved in the cleavage of carotenoids to produce, for example, retinol, commonly known as vitamin A.
  • PCK2
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, mitochondrial (PCK2, PEPCK-M), is an isozyme of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, PEPCK) that in humans is encoded by the PCK2 gene on chromosome 14.
  • Beta-galactosidase
    β-galactosidase, also called beta-gal or β-gal, is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides through the breaking of a glycosidic bond.
  • SWI/SNF
    In molecular biology, SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable), is a nucleosome remodeling complex found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
  • Non-competitive inhibition
    Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.
  • GTP cyclohydrolase I
    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) (EC 3.5.4.16) is a member of the GTP cyclohydrolase family of enzymes.
  • Catechol oxidase
    Catechol oxidase is a copper oxidase that contains a type 3 di-copper cofactor and catalyzes the oxidation of ortho-diphenols into ortho-quinones coupled with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water.
  • Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase
    Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a purine biosynthetic enzyme that catalyzes the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent oxidation of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step towards the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides from IMP.
  • Dipeptidase
    Dipeptidases are enzymes secreted by enterocytes into the small intestine.
  • ATP5F1
    ATP synthase subunit b, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5F1 gene.
  • Bromoperoxidase
    Bromoperoxidases are enzymes that catalyse the bromination of hydrocarbons.
  • Deubiquitinating enzyme
    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), also known as deubiquitinating peptidases, deubiquitinating isopeptidases, deubiquitinases, ubiquitin proteases, ubiquitin hydrolases, ubiquitin isopeptidases, are a large group of proteases that cleave ubiquitin from proteins and other molecules.
  • Phosphoinositide phospholipase C
    Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) (EC 3.1.4.11, triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, phosphoinositidase C, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, PI-PLC, 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes.
  • Deiodinase
    Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.
  • Duodenal cytochrome B
    Duodenal cytochrome B (Dcytb) has been identified as the reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the process of iron absorption in the duodenum of mammals.
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficiency
    Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the body's production of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE; pseudocholinesterase) is impaired.
  • L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase
    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT, PCMT), also called S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein-L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase, is an enzyme which recognizes and catalyzes the repair of damaged L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartatyl groups in proteins.
  • Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme
    In molecular biology, Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (ODC-AZ) is an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor.
  • Fluorinase
    The fluorinase enzyme (EC 2.5.1.63, also known as adenosyl-fluoride synthase) catalyzes the reaction between fluoride ion and the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate L-methionine and 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine, the first committed product of the fluorometabolite biosynthesis pathway.
  • ATP5E
    ATP synthase subunit epsilon, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5E gene.
  • Celloxylanase
    Celloxylanase is the name of enzyme which degrade the glycans and the xylans.
  • MBOAT
    The MBOAT (membrane bound O-acyl transferase) family of membrane proteins is a family of various acyltransferase enzymes.
  • Dihydroceramide desaturase
    Dihydroceramide desaturase is the enzyme involved in the conversion of dihydroceramide into ceramide by inserting the 4,5-trans-double bond to the sphingolipid backbone of dihydroceramide.
  • Cas1
    CRISPR-associated protein 1 (cas1) is one of the two universally conserved proteins found in the CRISPR prokaryotic immune defense system.
  • PNGase F
    Peptide:N-Glycosidase F, commonly referred to as PNGase F, is an amidase of the peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase class.
  • Ceramide synthase 5
    Ceramide synthase 5 (CerS5) is the enzyme encoded in humans by the CERS5 gene.