Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124, synonyms: DOPA decarboxylase, tryptophan decarboxylase, 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, AAAD, AADC) is a lyase enzyme.
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (EC 126.96.36.199), often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
Histone deacetylases (EC 188.8.131.52, HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O=C-CH3) from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
Tryptophan repressor (or trp repressor) is a transcription factor involved in controlling amino acid metabolism.
An amylase (/ˈæmᵻleɪs/) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
In molecular biology, DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes (EC 184.108.40.206) that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
This is sometimes called "charging" or "loading" the tRNA with the amino acid.
Beta-lactamases (β-lactamases) are enzymes (EC 220.127.116.11) produced by bacteria (also known as penicillinase) that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (EC 18.104.22.168) are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation (dehydrogenation) of aldehydes.
Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins.
Sirtuin or Sir2 proteins are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124).
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol) (Ribonucleic acid), also known as DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is an enzyme that produces primary transcript RNA.
17Beta Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (EC 126.96.36.199, beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 17-ketoreductase, 17beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, 17β-HSD, 17-ketosteroid oxidoreductases, HSD17B, 17-ketosteroid reductases, 17-KSR), are a group of alcohol oxidoreductases which catalyse the dehydrogenation of 17-hydroxysteroids in steroidogenesis.
Lipoxygenases (EC 1.13.11.-) are a family of iron-containing enzymes most of which catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids containing a cis,cis-1,4- pentadiene structure as shown in the following reaction: Fatty acid + O2 = fatty acid hydroperoxide Lipoxygenases are found in plants, animals and fungi.
Streptokinase (SK) is an enzyme secreted by several species of streptococci that can bind and activate human plasminogen.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Methane monooxygenase, or MMO, is an enzyme capable of oxidizing the C-H bond in methane as well as other alkanes.
Pancreatin is a mixture of several digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine cells of the pancreas.
The Argonaute protein family plays a central role in RNA silencing processes, as essential catalytic components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC).
Alpha-galactosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties from glycolipids and glycoproteins.
Penicillin binding proteins
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are a group of proteins that are characterized by their affinity for and binding of penicillin.
In biochemistry, the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA.
Factor VII (EC 188.8.131.52, blood-coagulation factor VIIa, activated blood coagulation factor VII, formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade.
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (also γ-glutamyltransferase, GGT, gamma-GT; EC 184.108.40.206) is a transferase (a type of enzyme) that catalyzes the transfer of gamma-glutamyl functional groups from molecules such as glutathione to an acceptor that may be an amino acid, a peptide or water (forming glutamate).
Transposase is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyzes the movement of the transposon to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism.
A transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between a free amine group (e.g., protein- or peptide-bound lysine) and the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine.
Enolase, also known as phosphopyruvate hydratase, is a metalloenzyme responsible for the catalysis of the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the ninth and penultimate step of glycolysis.
11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is the name of a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: 11β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ ⇌ an 11-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.
α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (EC 220.127.116.11) is a glycoside hydrolase from bacteria and animals, also known as nagalase.
Colipase is a protein co-enzyme required for optimal enzyme activity of pancreatic lipase.
Fumarate reductase is the enzyme that converts fumarate to succinate, and is important in microbial metabolism as a part of anaerobic respiration.
DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase is an enzyme that in yeast is encoded by the MAG1 gene.
Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), is a protein that is encoded by the SLC4A1 gene in humans.
A capping enzyme (CE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the 5' cap to messenger RNA molecules that are in the process of being synthesized in the cell nucleus during the first stages of gene expression.
Radical SAM is a designation for a superfamily of enzymes that use a [4Fe-4S]+ cluster to reductively cleave S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to generate a radical, usually a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, as a critical intermediate.
DsbA is a bacterial thiol disulfide oxidoreductases (TDOR).
Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases
Flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductases catalyse the interchange of reducing equivalents between one-electron carriers and the two-electron-carrying nicotinamide dinucleotides.
Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDPKs, also NDP Kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates.
A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.
Monoacylglycerol lipase, also known as MAG lipase, MAGL, MGL or MGLL is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the MGLL gene.
Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved evolutionarily ancient enzyme with remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms.
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme EC 3.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Adenosine Deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168) involved in purine metabolism.
Aldolase A (ALDOA, or ALDA), also known as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDOA gene on chromosome 16.
Fatty acid desaturase
A fatty acid desaturase is an enzyme that removes two hydrogen atoms from a fatty acid, creating a carbon/carbon double bond.
Pancrelipases are commercial mixtures of pig-derived pancreatic amylase (a hydrolase acting on starch), pancreatic lipase, and chymotrypsin (a protease).
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
Glycogen branching enzyme
Glycogen branching enzyme is an enzyme that adds branches to the growing glycogen molecule during the synthesis of glycogen, a storage form of glucose.
In enzymology, coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase, also known as methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) or most systematically as 2-(methylthio)ethanesulfonate:N-(7-thioheptanoyl)-3-O-phosphothreonine S-(2-sulfoethyl)thiotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the formation of methane.
Sortase refers to a group of prokaryotic enzymes that modify surface proteins by recognizing and cleaving a carboxyl-terminal sorting signal.
ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) is an oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyses the formation and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes.
In molecular biology, DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 126.96.36.199) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
Monooxygenases are enzymes that incorporate one hydroxyl group into substrates in many metabolic pathways.
Nitrate reductases are molybdoenzymes that reduce nitrate (NO−3) to nitrite (NO−2).
S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme
S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52) (also known as methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT)) is an enzyme that creates S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) by reacting methionine (a non-polar amino acid) and ATP (the basic currency of energy).
Carotenoid oxygenases are a family of enzymes involved in the cleavage of carotenoids to produce, for example, retinol, commonly known as vitamin A.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, mitochondrial (PCK2, PEPCK-M), is an isozyme of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, PEPCK) that in humans is encoded by the PCK2 gene on chromosome 14.
β-galactosidase, also called beta-gal or β-gal, is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides through the breaking of a glycosidic bond.
In molecular biology, SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable), is a nucleosome remodeling complex found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.
GTP cyclohydrolase I
GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) (EC 184.108.40.206) is a member of the GTP cyclohydrolase family of enzymes.
Catechol oxidase is a copper oxidase that contains a type 3 di-copper cofactor and catalyzes the oxidation of ortho-diphenols into ortho-quinones coupled with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water.
Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a purine biosynthetic enzyme that catalyzes the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent oxidation of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step towards the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides from IMP.
Dipeptidases are enzymes secreted by enterocytes into the small intestine.
ATP synthase subunit b, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5F1 gene.
Bromoperoxidases are enzymes that catalyse the bromination of hydrocarbons.
Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), also known as deubiquitinating peptidases, deubiquitinating isopeptidases, deubiquitinases, ubiquitin proteases, ubiquitin hydrolases, ubiquitin isopeptidases, are a large group of proteases that cleave ubiquitin from proteins and other molecules.
Phosphoinositide phospholipase C
Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) (EC 220.127.116.11, triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, phosphoinositidase C, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, PI-PLC, 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes.
Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.
Duodenal cytochrome B
Duodenal cytochrome B (Dcytb) has been identified as the reductase enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the process of iron absorption in the duodenum of mammals.
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the body's production of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE; pseudocholinesterase) is impaired.
Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT, PCMT), also called S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein-L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase, is an enzyme which recognizes and catalyzes the repair of damaged L-isoaspartyl and D-aspartatyl groups in proteins.
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme
In molecular biology, Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (ODC-AZ) is an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor.
The fluorinase enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168, also known as adenosyl-fluoride synthase) catalyzes the reaction between fluoride ion and the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate L-methionine and 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine, the first committed product of the fluorometabolite biosynthesis pathway.
ATP synthase subunit epsilon, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5E gene.
Celloxylanase is the name of enzyme which degrade the glycans and the xylans.
The MBOAT (membrane bound O-acyl transferase) family of membrane proteins is a family of various acyltransferase enzymes.
Dihydroceramide desaturase is the enzyme involved in the conversion of dihydroceramide into ceramide by inserting the 4,5-trans-double bond to the sphingolipid backbone of dihydroceramide.
CRISPR-associated protein 1 (cas1) is one of the two universally conserved proteins found in the CRISPR prokaryotic immune defense system.
Peptide:N-Glycosidase F, commonly referred to as PNGase F, is an amidase of the peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase class.
Ceramide synthase 5
Ceramide synthase 5 (CerS5) is the enzyme encoded in humans by the CERS5 gene.