How did Lincoln handle Fort Sumter?
He didn't send troops, he made the South decide whether to attack or not.
Who was the first state to secede and when? What was their secession document called?
South Carolina; December 20, 1860; Ordinance of Secession
What six states seceded after the first?
Texas, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisianna
When did the Civil War begin and where?
Fort Sumter, off the coast of South Carolina; South Carolina attacked on April 12, 1861
What was the result of Fort Sumter?
Four other states seceded: Tennessee, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia; the war started
How did Lincoln abuse his executive power?
Calling for 75,000 troops to put down the "insurrection" in the South, authorizing spending for the war, and suspending the privilege of Habeus Corpus
What is Habeus Corpus?
The right for people to know what they are getting arrested for, and getting a fair trial
Who was the Southern President, and where was the capital?
Jefferson Davis, Richmond
Who were the border states, and how were they handled?
West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky. Maryland was put into martial law to keep it. Missouri had internal conflict. Delaware, West Virginia both wanted to be Union. Kentucky was neutral, and did nothing, but both sides claimed. Lincoln didn't want to emancipate slaves to alienate the border states that still had it.
What were the Southern advantages?
They were fighting a defensive war, had the most talented officers, military was already trained in gun use, shorter travel distances.
What were Southern disadvantages?
Their government was so state focused that there was little cooperation. Tiny navy. Only had Tregdar Iron Works for factory. Dependant on Europe for help. Creating country and fighting at the same time.
What were the Northern advantages?
Had 23 states, and 22 million people. Lots of economy, money, and factory. Had a nice navy.
What were Northern disadvantages?
They had tons of immigrants that didn't want to join because they thought slaves would take their jobs.
What was Jefferson Davis like?
He was very egotistical and hard to work with. He didn't get along with Lee, but he did have a lot of military experience.
Who was the vice-president of the Confederacy?
Alexander H. Stephens.
What was the Battle of Bull Run?
First big battle of the Civil War. It was a hill in Manassas, Virginia.
Who were the leaders in the Battle of Bull Run?
McDowell vs. Stonewall Jackson
What was McDowell's strategy for the Battle of Bull Run?
To rush in, own the Confeds, and then take Richmond.
What was the outcome of the First Battle of Bull Run?
Stonewall Jackson owns McDowell. McDowell retreats and gets demoted. McClellan replaces him.
What was the Second Battle of Bull Run?
Stonewall wanted to take DC. He pushes and destroys the Union (under Pope), but doesn't take DC (huge blunder).
Who came up with the Anaconda Plan?
What were the three points of the Anaconda Plan?
Take the Mississippi, blockade Southern ports, and crush Richmond.
What was the Peninsula Campaign?
Under George McClellan after long training, he took his troops along the peninsula to take Richmond from the South. McClellan gets owned and Pope takes his spot.
What was Antietam?
It was a battle in Maryland, where Lee wants a Northern victory for Euro support. McClellan gets repromoted, and actually beats the Confederates. He doesn't pursue though, so Lincoln removes him.
What were the Monitor and Merimac?
Ironclads. The Southern Merimac owned up, but finally the North produced the Monitor, which challenged the Merrimac.
What was the Battle of Shiloh?
In Western side of the war, Grant was surprised by Johnston. Grant won though, they could not keep him from taking the Mississippi.
Who was David Farragut?
The captain of the Union navy.
What was the Trent Affair?
A British mail boat called the Trent, went to the South. John Slidell and James Mason were on it when the boat was captured by the Union. The Union keeps the boat, and Britain threatens war. Lincoln lets the boat go to keep Britain out.
What was the Alabama?
A Southern vessel, purchased from Britain, that captured tons of Union ships.
What were the Confiscation Acts?
The first said that the contraband used against the Union could be kept by them (slaves). The second said that slaves of people engaged in the fight against the Union were free, and it allowed for Africans to join the war.
What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
Lincoln said all slaves in rebellion states free. Made the war for the purpose of freeing the slaves. Didn't really do anything though.
What was the Thirteenth Ammendment?
Abolished slavery. Wasn't passed until 1865 though.
What was the purpose of the Battle of Gettysburg?
Lee wanted a victory in the North for momentum and European help.
How did the Battle of Gettysburg turn out?
Pickett's charge failed, despite thinking it would work. Tons of people died, and it turned the war in favor of the Union.
How did the North get troops?
Conscription. 20-45 males for unknown period of time; unless they had a substitute, $300, medical or moral issue, or a vital job.
How did the South get troops?
Conscription. Men between 18-35 for three years (later pushed to 45); unless vital job, provide substitute, $500, had at least 20 slaves
What was Vicksburg?
Grant seiges Vicksburg for seven weeks. On July 4 (same day as Gettysburg finishes) he takes it down. Gives control of Mississippi to Union, and cuts states off from Confederacy.
Where did Sherman's March go?
He went from Tennessee to Georgia and South Carolina.
What were Sherman's tactics?
Destroy everything! The world is destroyed after him, and tries to break down morale of the Confederacy.
How did Lincoln get chosen for the Election of 1864?
The War Democrats merged with the Republicans, and they chose Lincoln but only if he chose a War Democrat VP. Andrew Johnson.
Who did the Democrats pick for the Election of 1864?
Who won the Election of 1864, and by how much?
Lincoln. Own in Electoral College; closer in popular vote.
Where did Lee surrender to Grant and when??
Appomattox Court House, on April 9,1865
Who were the Copperheads?
The Democrats who opposed the war.
What was Ex Parte Milligan (1866)?
Court case. They said that people were treated unfairly in Indiana (no trial). Doing this could only be done during extreme times.
Were draft riots common during the Civil War?
Somewhat. A lot of Irish people rioted in New York.
What was The Morrill Tariff Act (1861)?
It raised tariffs to giver America moneybags, and it started the Republican idea of high tariffs.
What was The Homestead Act (1862)?
It gave 160 acres of to anyone who would farm on the Great Plains for five years.
What was the Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)?
It encouraged states to use the sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges.
What was the Pacific Railway Act (1862)?
It authorized the building of a transcontinental railroad over a northern route from California.
How did the first Native Americans reach America?
Through the Berring Straight about 40,000 years ago.
Who were some popular North American tribes?
The Sious; Pawnee; Pueblo; Adena; Hopewell; Mississippian; Iroquois.
How did the Northern tribes survive?
Most were nomadic. The Iroquois were the only permanent civilization in the North.
Who were the Inca?
They were Natives in the Andes in South America. They had built a nice road system.
Who were the Maya?
They were in Central America. They made the calendar, writing system, pyramid.
Who were Aztec?
A warrior Native tribe in Mexico. They had lots of sacrifice, agriculture, and voodoo.
What caused Europe to want to explore?
Improvements in technology, religion, trade, and development of nation states. (3 G's.)
What technology helped spur exploration?
The Renaissance. Compass, gunpowder, new shipbuilding techniques, mapmaking, printing press.
Who were the leaders of Spain after defeating the Moors?
Ferdinand and Isabella.
Why did Europe need to find a new route to China?
The Ottoman Turks took Constantinople, a major route to China?
Who was Henry the Navigator?
From Portugal, he went south around Africa, and had a route to the "Indies". First explorer.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
An explorer funded by Spain to go to the New World. He finds America. He wants money and glory.
Who was Amerigo Vespucci?
The person America was named after.
How was South America divided?
The Pope gave Portugal (Brazil) and Spain the West.
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)?
Moved divide line a few degrees west to establish Portugal has Brazil.
Who was Ferdinand Magellan?
Who was Hernan Cortés?
Took the Aztecs.
Who was Fransisco Pizzaro?
Took the Incas.
What was the encomienda system?
The king of Spain gave land and Indians to Spaniards.
What was the asiento system?
The Spanish could buy slaves, but they had to pay a tax to Spain for them.
Who was John Cabot?
The first explorer for England, he went to Newfoundland.
Who was Giovanni da Verrazano?
The first French explorer. He wanted to find a passage through North America to Asia.
Who was Samuel De Champlain?
The founder of Quebec.
Who was Henry Hudson?
A Dutch hired explorer who discovered New York (Amsterdam).
What were joint-stock companies?
British people pooled their money together to support a tradiving venture.
Why did England want to start exploring?
Owned Spain, Natives were gone from the coast, population boom, religious persecution, need farm land
What was the first attempt at settlement for England?
Roanoke. It failed. Where are settlers now?
When was Jamestown founded?
Who founded Jamestown?
The Virginia Company.
What saved Jamestown?
Tobacco. Didn't have much food though. John Smith led them, while John Rolfe got the tobacca with Pocahontas (sp?).
How did Jamestown become a royal colony?
Virginia Company went bankrupt.
Who founded the Plymouth Colony?
Puritans. They were pilgrims and separatists.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
Signed aboard the Mayflower, decided to make decisions by majority. One of the first constitutions in America.
How was Massachusetts Bay founded?
The Massachusetts Bay Company (Puritans) led by John Winthrop found Boston.
What was the Great Migration?
Huge movement of people from England led by John Winthrop. They went to Massachussetts Bay.
What was the Virginia House of Burgesses?
The first representative assembly in America (Virginia).
What were corporate colonies?
(Jamestown), they were operated by joint-stock companies.
What were royal colonies?
(Virginia after 1624) They were under the direct rule of the king.
What were proprietary colonies?
(Maryland, Pennsylvania) individuals given a charter by the king
What were the Chesapeake Colonies?
Maryland and Virginia.
Who ruled over Maryland?
Lord Baltimore, he died and then gave it to his son, Cecil Calvert.
What was the Act of Toleration?
In Maryland, it allowed all Christian freedom.
What economic problems did Virginia face?
Tobacco prices fluctuated too much.
What was Bacon's Rebellion?
Nathaniel Bacon, and other West Virginians didn't like how William Berkeley was running it. Too many native attacks. They attacked Berkeley with some success, then Bacon died.
What were the effects of Bacon's Rebellion?
Showed the sharp class differences. Example of colonial resistance to royal control.
What was an indentured servant?
A master pays a persons passage to America, then they work for a certain amount of time.
What was the headright system?
Virginia gave 50 acres of land to anyone who came to Virginia, or anyone who paid for another's passage.
Who was Roger Williams?
He wants the Church and State separate. He aggravates John Winthrop, and goes to Rhode Island where he starts Providence. He's actually nice to the Natives, and allows religious toleration.
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
She got kicked out by Winthrop for following antinomianism. She founded Portsmouth, which later joined with Providence to form Rhode Island.
What was antinomianism?
The idea that faith alone could save someone.
Who was Thomas Hooker?
He founded Connecticut and Hartford by leaving Boston.
What were the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)?
Made a representative government in Connecticut. First written constitution in America. Governor chosen by legislature.
Who was John Davenport?
He found New Haven in Connecticut.
What formed Connecticut?
New Haven and Hartford combined.
How did New Hampshire form?
The king cut a piece of the Massachusetts Bay off.
What was the halfway covenant?
It allowed for those who weren't that religious in New England to stay part of the faith. It was to keep the youth in the faith.
What was the new England Confederation?
New England joined together to stay safe from Europeans and Natives. Also for boundary disputes and runaway servants.
What was the effect of the New England Confederation?
First time unified colonial action.
Who was Metacom?
The chief of the Wampanoags.
What was King Phillip's War?
Metacom tries to attack New England. The Wampanoag get defeated after pwning up.
What were the Restoration Colonies?
The Carolinas, New York, and New Jersey
How did South and North Carolina differ?
The South had tons of slaves. They had a ton of rice for their economy. The North was a lot smaller plantations (tobacco farms).
How was New York formed?
Charles II sends the Duke of York to take over the Dutch area. He does, and is relatively nice. James II (Duke of York) tried to tax without representation.
How was New Jersey formed?
The king gave John Berkley and George Carteret the land. They just sold it off though.
How was Pennsylvania formed?
The Quakers took it.
Who were the Quakers?
They were peaceful people. They had equality for men and woman, and they believed in the person not the Bible. They were persecuted.
Who was William Penn?
A Quaker who was given Pennsylvania because the King owed him.
What was "The Holy Experiment"?
Penns idea to provide a religious refuge for Quakers and others, put liberal ideas into the government, and get money for himself
What was the Frame of Government (1682-1683)?
It guaranteed in Pennsylvania the a representative assembly elected by landowners.
What was the Charter of Liberties?
In Pennsylvania it guaranteed freedom opf worship for everyone and unrestricted immigration.
How was Deaware formed?
Penn gave the three lower counties Pennsylvania their own assembly. They formed Delaware.
Why was Georgia formed?
To be a buffer between Florida and South Carolina. Also a sending place of convicts from England.
Who was the governor of Georgia?
What was mercantilism?
The idea that coloneis only exist to give to the parent country.
What were the Acts of Trade and Navigation?
They said: trade only with English or colonial ships and crews; all imports come from England; all exports to England
What were the positive effects of the Navigation Acts?
New England shipbuilding goes up; Chesapeake tobacco has a monopoly in England; England protects the colonies
What were the negatives of the Trade and Navigation Acts?
Colonial manufacturing limited; Cheseapeake farmers didn't get much for their crops; colonists had to pay a lot for imports.
What was the Dominion of New England?
King James II merged New England, New Jersey, and New York. They tried to limit colonial power. After the Glorious Revolution, the Dominion fell apart.
Who was Sir Edmund Andros?
He governed the Dominion of New England.
What was the Triangular Trade?
Rum from New England to West Africa. Slaves go to the Carribean. The sugar goes to New England for rum.
Why did the slave trade grow?
Reduced migration from English; the slaves were a dependable work force; the slaves were cheap
What was the Middle Passage?
The passage from Africa to the Carribean. Many slaves die on the way.
What immigrants came to America?
Few English, lots of German immigrants, Scotish Irish, Huguenots, Dutch, and Swedes. Africans the most.
Where did most of the immigrants settle?
The middle colonies (Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware)
What culture dominated the colonies?
How did the colonies govern themselves?
Self-government. They each had a representative assembly. The governor either chosen by king, people, or proprietor.
To what degree of religious toleration was there?
Some colonies had more than others. All had some toleration though.
Did the colonies have hereditary aristocracy?
No. Social classes did develop though. People had more social mobility though.
What was the colonial family like?
Many people married young and had large families. Men usually did politics, landowning, and power. Women bore lots of children, did the housework, worked on farm, and took care of the kids.
What was substinence farming?
Providing enough to get by.
Did the colonies have a good monetary system?
No most done through trade, gold and silver popular trade items.
What Churches did a lot of people belong to?
Mostly Protestant. A lot of Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Churche, Lutherans, Mennonites, Quakers, Congregational Church.
What was the Great Awakening?
A new fire being lit in religion. Told to stop sining, confess sins, and be emotion to not go to Hell.
Who was Jonathan Edwards?
Initiated the Great Awakening in Massachusetts with "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God". People had to repent or go to hell.
Who was George Whitefield?
An English man who preached the Great Awakening. People needed to openly profess themself, and they didn't need a minister.
What were the effects of the Great Awakening?
Divided the Old and New Lights. New Churches gained a lot of popularity. Lots moree religious diversity, and a call for separation of Church and State.
What was Poor Richard's Almanack?
Benjamin Franklin's book that was popular back then.
What was education like in the 18th century?
Very little. Some higher instutions like Harvard and Yale were opened up.
What new professions opened up for people?
Physicians, reverends, lawyers
What was the Zenger Case?
John Peter Zenger critized the New York governor. Andrew Hamilton argued that it was okay because it was the truth. The jury let him go, and it encouraged others to criticize more.
How were the colonial legislatures formed?
The bottom is voted by the people. The upper is chosen by the king or governor.
How did town meetings affect government?
They were the biggest form of government in the North where they often had small towns.
What were county governments?
Usually a sheriff in the South was the peace keeping person, not town meetings like the North.
How was the democracy limited in America?
White men with property were the only voters. Women, slaves, landless men, religious restrictions all kept one from voting.
Where was the French and Indian War fought.
In the colonies. France and England had to send troops over there.
How did the French and Indian War begin?
French were building forts on the Ohio River Valley to halt westward movement of British colonies.
Who do the English send to take over the French and Indian War in the colonies?
How does Pitt prepare the colonies?
He plans strategy, appoints peeople, and uses impressment.
What is impressment?
What did George Washington do during the French and Indian War?
He tried to attack Fort Duquesne, but failed.
What was the Albany Plan of Union?
Benjamin Franklin wrote it, it would be an intercolonial government and a system for recruiting troops and getting taxes.
What was the effect of the Albany Union Plan?
It failed, but it was a precursor to Revolution working together.
Who was Edward Braddock?
A Virginian general that tried to attack Fort Duquesne, but failed.
What was the Peace of Paris?
Ended the French and Indian War. It gave Great Britain French Canada and Florida. Spain got French western territory and Louisiana for giving up Florida.
What was salutary neglect?
British empire ignores the colonies because they're not useful at that moment.
What did George III, and Parliament (the Whigs at the time) do?
They wanted to use the colonies more. They wanted to make the colonies a cost of maintaining the British empire.
What was Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)?
Chief Pontiac tried to attack the colonies. They didn't want the colonists to move west anymore. The British sent troops to destroy the Natives.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
Colonists couldn't go west of the Appalacian Mountains. Didn't really enforce it, but the colonists were crazy if they did go. This also angered the colonists.
What was the Sugar Act of 1764?
Put a tax on sugar and other things to raise money for the Crown.
What was the Quartering Act of 1765?
It required colonists to house and feed British soldiers stationed in the colonies.
What was the Stamp Act of 1765?
Instituted by Lord Grenville, the Stamp Act put a tax on all stamps (paper stuff). This was the first direct tax.
How did people respond to the Stamp Act?
Everyone hated it so much. Taxation without representation.
Who was Patrick Henry?
He was a part of the House of Burgesse, and wanted Britain to recognize the colonists
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
Representatives met together to form it in New York. They said that only the elected representatives could pass taxes.
Who were the Sons and Daughters of Liberty?
Violent colonists who rebelled against Britain.
What was the Declaratory Act (1766)?
Grenville got replaced and Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. It also said that Parliament had the right to pass taxes and make laws in all cases.
What were the Townshend Acts?
New taxes collected on imports of tea, glass, and paper. Allowed for the search of homes for smuggled goods. Suspended New York Assembly for defying the Quartering Act.
What was a writ of assistance?
a general lisence to search anywhere, rather than a judge's warrant to search a specific property.
What was the Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania?
Written by Dickinson, they said that Parliament could regulate commerce but could not pass taxes without consent of representative assemblies.
Who were Samuel Adams and James Otis?
Two extreme revolutionaries. They organized a lot of boycotts.
What was the Massachusetts Circular Letter?
Written by Otis and Adams, this went to all colonies and asked for a petition to repeal Townshend Acts. Britain threatened Boston.
Who was Lord Frederick North?
He took over after Townshend, and he repealed the Townshend Acts.
What was the Boston Massacre?
People threw poop balls at soldiers. They killed five people, and everyone freaks out.
What was the Committee of Corespondence?
Samuel Adams started it. They would exchange letters and stuff about suspicious British activity. Virginia set up the Intercolonial Committees after.
What was the Gaspee incident?
A British ship crashed into the coast of Rhode Island. Disguised as Natives, colonists burned the ship.
What was the Tea Act of 1773?
Tax on tea.
What was the Boston Tea Party (1773)?
Disguised as Natives, colonists go and burn down a tea ship.
What were the Intolerable Acts?
As retaliation to the Boston Tea Party, North passed some Coercive Acts and Quebec Acts.
What did the Coercive Acts (1774) do?
The Port Act closed the port of Boston until tea paid for, the Massachusetts Government Acts reduced Massachusetts legislature power while governor power increase, Administration of Justice Act alowed royal officials accused to be tried in England, the Quartering Act allowed British troops to be quartered in private homes.
What was the Quebec Act (1774)?
It made roman Catholic the religion of Quebec. Increased Quebec's size and set up a government without a representative assembly.
What was enlightenment?
A belief that the "darkness" of past ages could be corrected by using human reason in solving problems.
What was Deism?
The belief that God made the universe, but didn't interfer in human affairs. Trust human reason.
What was rationalism?
Trusting human reason to solve problems, and also science.
Who were John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
They were Enlightenment thinkers who pushed Enlightenment to the max.
What was the purpose of the first Continental Congress (1774)?
How to react to the alarming threat to their rights and liberties.
Who were the radicals at the First Continental Congress?
John Adams, Samuel Adams, and Patrick Henry.
What was in the letter sent to the King from the First Continental Congress?
The want Intolerable Acts repealed; want representative but not seeking independenceThey can set up rules but can’t run coloniesIf Acts not repealed, boycott.
Who was Paul Revere?
He warned William Dawes at Lexington to prepare for a fight at Concord.
Who were the Minutemen?
They were militia of the colonies.
What was in Lexington and Concord that the British wanted?
After defeating the Minutemen at Lexington, where do the British go?
What happens at Concord?
Colonists pwn' it up.
Where was the Battle of Bunker Hill fought?
Who won the battle of Bunker Hil?
The Americans, they claimed. They did a huge number on the British troops.
Why was a Second Continental Congress called?
Lexington and Concord
What was the purpose of the 2nd Continental Congress?
To discuss new goals now that Britain is showing force
What did everyone agree on in the 2nd Continental Congress?
That war was necessary, however they disagreed on the purpose.
What were the Suffolk Resolves?
They were a product of the First Continental Congress. They called for a repeal of the Intolerable Acts by boycotting and preparing a military.
What was the Declaration of Rights and Grievances?
A product of the First Continental Congress, it was a petition to the king urging him to redress colonial rights. It also recognized Parliament's ability to regulate commerce.
What was the Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms?
It put George Washington as leader, and it called for colonies to give troops.
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
Written by John Dickinson, it gave England an ultimatum of sorts. Give us representation or we secede.
What was the Prohibitory act (1775)?
King George III claimed the colonies in rebellion.
Who wrote Common Sense and what did it do?
Thomas Paine. It pushed a lot of people towards wanting independence from England.
When was the Declaration of Independence resolution approved, and when is the Draft approved?
July 2, 1776 - resolutionJuly 4, 1776 - draft
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
What did the Declaration of Independence include?
Principles that justified the revolution (Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness natural rights), and also grievances against the king.
How did the DoI handle slavery?
No more trading and purchasing slaves, but this was removed to get more signeratures.
Who were the patriots?
Fiercely loyal people who wanted to fight in the war. They made up about 40% of the population.
Who were the Tories/Loyalists?
People who sided with Britain. They made up about 20-30%.
What was Valley Forge?
The place Washington retreated to after the beating he recieved in the first years of the war.
What were Continentals?
The colonial money.
Who commanded Bunker Hill for the British?
Who took over for Gage?
What was the turning point in the Revolution?
What was Saratoga?
Horatio Gates fights Burgoyne in the North. He owns and gets France to join America.
How did Howe handle the war?
He could've crushed the Americans, but he let them squirm. He failed.
How did the Americans finance the Revolution?
They sold war bonds. Borrowed money. Used Militia diplomats which were representatives that went abroad. France.
Where did phase III of the Revolution take place?
Britain wanted to go South where they wanted to get Loyalists and slaves to join them.
Where did the last battle of the Revolution take place?
It was in Yorktown. Clinton (the new British general) stayed in the North.
Who fought in Yorktown?
Cornwallis (Britain) versus Washington and Frenchies.
Who was the main American general in the South?
How does America win at Yorktown?
They trap Cornwallis by land and sea.
How did the Treaty of Paris (1783) work?
Britain recognized American independence, Mississippi river western border of America, Americans get fishing rights in Canada, and Americans pay debts owed to British and Loyalists who they owned.
What were the Articles of Confederation?
American national unicameral government at first.
What powers did the AoC lack?
Tax, regulate trade, draft. States held most of the power. Also, foreigners hated them for not being able to pay or do anything.
What was the Land Ordinance of 1785?
It established a policy for surveying and selling western lands. It also set aside land for education.
What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
It set the rules for creating new states. It also gave limited government to developing territories and banned slavery in the new regions.
What was Shay's Rebellion?
Daniel Shays led a revolt in Massachusetts against taxes. Massachussetts couldn't really handle it, neither could the national government. It showed that they needed a stronger national government.
Who was Mary McCauleey?
She was the famous woman who brought pitchers of water to soldiers on the battlefield. She also tried taking the spot of her dead husband.
Who was Deborah Sampson?
She tried impersonating a man to fight in the Revolutionary War.
Who was Abigal Adams?
She was a major advocate of woman's rights.
What was the Annapolis Convention?
It was a convention held between different states regarding the critical problems the Articles of Confederation was having. It led to the Constitutional Convention.
Where was the Constitutional Convention held?
What was the original purpose of the CC?
Just to revise the AoC.
Who led the CC?
What was the Virginia Plan?
Written by Madison, it favored larger states with more population. They favored a bicameral legislature.
What was the New Jersey Plan?
It was for small states and written by William Patterson. It offered equal representation from each state and the ability for Congress to tax.
What was the Great Compromise?
A bicameral legislature. House - Virginia. Senate - New Jersey. After approved, it added judicial and executive branches. It also ended slave trade in 1808, and counted slaves as 3/5 of a person. Signed in Sept 1787.
What was the commercial compromise?
It allowed for Congress to regulate trade, including putting tariffs on imports (not exports though).
Why was the electoral college system set up?
To avoid mob ruling.
Who were the main federalists?
Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
What did the federalists favor?
Loose interpretation of the Constitution, strong federal government, wealthy Northerners
Who were the main anti-federalists?
Samuel Adams, George Mason, Elbridge Gerry
What did the anti-federalists favor?
State rights, strict interpretation of the Constitution, Southern
What were the Federalist Papers?
Written by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison they tried to convince people to be federalist.
Why was the Bill of Rights added?
To appease the anti-federalists and get the Constitution ratified.
Who was George Washington's cabinet?
SS - Thomas JefersonST - HamiltonSW - Henry KnoxAG - Edmund RandolphVP - John Adams
What was the Judiciary Act (1789)?
It established the Supreme Court with one chief and five other judges. They were to rule on the constitutionality of decisions by the state courts.
Who wrote the Report on Public Credit?
What were the goals of the Report on Public Credit?
Assumption of state debt, fund federal debt through bonds and loans and other nations, build the capital on the Potomac River; creates the National Bank shortly after.
Who promoted protective tariffs of infant industries?
How did America respond to the French Revolution?
Many people wanted to join with the French (DR), while others preferred Britain (F)
What did Washington do about the French Revolution?
Neutrality to keep trade open.
Who was Citizen Genet?
He was the Frenh ambassador, who tried speaking directly to America for assistance. Washington kicks him out, but then lets him back in for political asylum.
What was Jay's Treaty (1794)?
John Jay was sent to make peace with Britain (they was takin our ships). It said that British people have to leave their forts, America can't aid the French, Britain would ease up on their attack, and they would have to agree to talk before acting on a problem.
How did America respond to Jay's Treaty?
They hated it.
What was Pinckney's Treaty (1795)?
Ambassador from America to Spain. Spain gave America the opportunity to use New Orleans as a trade port. Also solidified the Floridan border, and ceded some land from it.
What was the Treaty of Greenville?
After the battle of Fallen Timbers, the Natives fork over Ohio.
What was the Whisky Rebellion (1794)?
People angry over the excise tax on whiskey. Washington assembled a massive army to scare them. Resulted in people scared of Federalists and use of massive army.
What was the Public Land Act (1796)?
It established procedures for selling federal lands at reasonable prices.
What were the ideals of the Democratic-Republicans?
Strict interpretation of the Constitution, weak central government, pro-French, small army, agriculture, no tariffs
What were the ideals of the Federalists?
Loose interpretation of the Constitution, strong central government, pro-British, business centered, national bank, tariffs.
What did Washington advise in his farewell address?
Don't get involved in European affairs, don't make "permanent alliances", don't form political parties, avoid sectionalism.
What precedent did Washington set?
The two term tradition
Who won the election of 1796?
John Adams (F) with Aarron Burr as VP (DR)
What was the XYZ affair?
After ships attacked, Adams sends a delagate to France. They're met by Agents X Y and Z who want a bribe to let them see the king. People wanted war with France after that.
What were the purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts?
To stop DR power from growing.
What was the Naturalization Act?
Made immigrants need to stay 14 years before citizenship.
What was the Alien Act?
The president could deport any aliens considered dangerous, and detain during war.
What was the Sedition Act?
Newspaper editors couldn't criticize the president or Congress.
What were the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions?
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, VA and KY tried to nullify their effects.
Who won the Revolution of 1800?
Thomas Jeffersn and Aaron Burr tied in votes (both DR). TJ won through the aid of AH.
What policies did Jefferson follow?
Keep the national bank and debt repayment. Stay neutral. Limit the central government, size of military, destroy the excise taxes, and reduce the national debt.
What was the twelfth ammendment?
Candidates run together to avoid a tiebreak.
Who was Robert Livingston?
The guy TJ sent to go buy New Orleans.
Why does Napoleon sell all of Louisianna?
He needed to put French money in Europe, and Toussaint l'Ouverture was owning him in Santo Domingo.
How much did America get Louisianna for?
Why is Jefferson wary of taking the deal for Louisianna?
He doesn't know if he has constitutional power to do it.
What did TJ use to explore the Louisiana Purchase?
Lewis and Clark.
How did the Federalists still have power during the TJ regime?
Why did the Marbury vs. Madison (1803) case come up?
On his last day of his presidency, Adams appointed someone. James Madison doesn't get the letter in time, so Marbury wants to sue him.
What was the ruling on Marbury vs. Madison (1803)?
COurt say sMarbury deserves the spot, but they can't force madison to give it to him. Marshall also declares the Judiciary Act 1789 unconstitutional because Congress can't control the court.
What was judicial review that Marshall established?
Supreme Court could excercise the power to say whether something by Congress or President is unconstitutional or not.
How did TJ respond to Madison vs. Marbury (1803)?
Tried to impeach Federalist judges.
Who challenged Hamilton to a duel?
Who do the Essex Junto use to do their bidding?
What happens to Burr after killing Hamilton and trying to have New England secede?
He is convicted for treason.
Who are "The Quids"?
They were a faction of DRs that opposed TJ.
How did TJ handle the Barbary Pirates capture of Americans?
He tried to kill the pirates, didn't work so he just paid them. Very emberrasing.
What was impressment?
Britain took over American ships, and used Americans as their workers.
What was the Chesapeake-Leopard affair?
British Leopard took over the American Chesapeake. Impressment. Got publicized, and anti-British feelings ran high.
What was the Embargo Act (1807)?
To prevent British and French ships from harrassing American ships, TJ prevented trade with them. Destroyed the American economy. NE even wanted to secede after that.
Who wins the election of 1808?
James Madison. He beats Charles Pinckney.
What was the Nonintercourse Act (1809)?
Allowed for Americans to trade with everyone but France and Britain.
What was Macon's Bill Number two?
U.S. would be able to trade with Britain and France, unless they attacked our ships.
Who wins the election of 1812?
Madison, he beats out DeWitt Clinton (F).
What were the causes of the War of 1812?
Britain and France not respecting ships, most Americans were pro-french, people in the West blame Britain for aiding the natives, maybe obtain Canada, Warhawks are crazy.
How did the invasion of Canada go?
What did the Treaty of Ghent do?
It called for a stop to the fighting, it returned all conquered territory back to original state, recognized pre-war boundary between Canada and the States.
What was the Hartford Convention?
After the War of 1812, New England Federalists decide they want to secede. They fail though as America rebounds.
What was the time during Monroe's Presidency known as?
"The Era of Good Feelings."
Why was the "Era of Good Feelings" kind of a lie?
The sectionalism. It was intense.
What cultural nationalism developed during "The Era of Good Feelings"?
People became ferverant nationalist after the War of 1812. This was demonstrated through the arts and actions.
How did economic nationalism grow?
Through tariffs and The American System.
What was the Tariff of 1816?
It put a protective tariff on goods imported into America.
What was in Henry Clay's American System?
Protective Tariffs, a national bank, internal improvements.
Why was internal improvements the only part of the American System that wasn't followed?
Monroe and Madison didn't know if it was constitutional to put them into place.
When was the Second National Bank chartered?
What was the first panic of American history?
The Panic of 1819.
What caused the Panic of 1819?
Cotton prices fall dramatically. Banks credit can't really give. People stop paying off their debts.
What were Marshall's decisions aimed at?
Increading the power of the Judicial branch and pushing Federalist ideas.
What happened in Fletcher v. Peck (1810)?
States couldn't pass legislation invalidating a contract. (Georgia trying to do land fraud).
What happened in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)?
Marshall ruled that the National Bank was part of Congress's implied powers. States also couldn't tax the National bank. Supreme laws rule over state laws.
What was Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)?
New Hampshire wanted to make a college public that was private (Dartmouth). State couldn't change a private contract.
What was Gibbons v. Ogden (1821)?
New York wanted to give a monopoly to a steamboat company, but this conflicted with Congress charter. Marshall ruled that New York monopoly was unconstitutional, federal govt. has control over interstate commerce.
Why did America want to expand westward?
Native American land aquisition, economic pressures, improved transportation, and immigrants.
What did western states demand for growth?
land made at cheaper prices, improved transportation, and credit from state banks.
What was the Tallmadge Amendment?
Was to stop the expansion of slavery in Missouri. It stopped letting slaves in, and at 25 the slaves would be emancipated.
Why did the Tallmadge Ammendment fail?
Southerners didn't like the North encroaching.
What did Clay propose for the Missouri Compromise?
Missouri becomes a slave state. Maine comes in as free. 36, 30 line established.
What was the Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817)?
It disarmed the Great Lakes. It also established the Canadian-American border.
What was the Treaty of 1818?
America and Britain agreed....shared fishing rights off of Newfoundland, joint occupation of Oregon, and northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel (establish border)
What part did Andrew Jackson play in getting Florida?
Pwn'd the Seminole.
What was the Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)?
Spain was worried the Americans would use force. They gave up Florida and it's Oregon claims for five million. U.S. had to give up Texas though.
Who wrote the Monroe Doctorine?
What did the Monroe Doctorine say?
Americas no longer colonized by Europe; foreign actions on the Americas an attack on the U.S.; U.S. will not get involved with Euro colonies; U.S. will not get involved with Euro affairs.
What was the Lancaster Turnpike?
A major road going in Pennsylvania. It was a successful toll road, and example of internal improvements.
What was the Cumberland Road
It went from Virginia to Maryland. Connect North and South
Why did Madison veto the Cumberland Road support?
Didn't know if it was constitutional.
What was the importance of the Erie Canal?
It linked western farms with eastern cities. And it lead to much more canal building.
Who invented the steamboat?
What was the effect of railroads?
Major boost in transportation. Made cities like Chicago and Detroit book.
What did Eli Whitney do?
Cotton gin and interchangable parts of guns.
How did corporations raise capital after the War of 1812?
They were allowed to use stock.
Who was Samuel Slater?
He took the cotton-spinning machine blueprint from England.
What was the Lowell System?
They used women as their primary source of labor.
Why did specialization decrease?
Why did unions fail?
Immigrant workers, state laws, and economic depressions with unemployment
How did the market revolution affect women?
They began to have less children and gain more control over their lives.
What happened to the economy with the market revolution?
It became better, people got wealthier.
How did the market revolution affect slavery?
Made the South depend even more on slavery, and attatched them to the economy further.
How did the industrial revolution affect sectionalism?
Increased the differences between the North and South.
What was urban life like?
Crowded housing, poor sanitation, lots of disease, and crime.
What did Cyrus McCormick invent?
The mechanical reaper.
Why did new cities spring up in the Old Northwest?
Railroads. They also were on rives, and they served as spots where eastern goods could come then be distributed.
Why was there a surge in immigration in the 1830s-1860s?
Cheap ocean transportation, famines and revolutions in Europe, U.S. becomes a dream like place.
Why did the Irish flood into America and where did they tend to go?
The potato famine. They went to the slums on the east coast.
Why did German immigrants flood America and where did they go?
Economic and political hardships in Germany. Most went to the Old Northwest to farm.
Why did the Nativist party form?
They were mostly native-born protestants that didn't like the Catholics. They didn't want the immigrants to take jobs or land.
What was the Native American Party?
A party formed of Nativists.
What actual political party did the Native American Party form, and who did they kill?
They formed the Know-Nothings, and they killed the Whigs.
Why Cotton king?
It owned all other crops in the South. It was also incredibly profitable.
What was slavery the "Peculiar Institution" and why?
Slavery. It was only in the U.S., Brazil, Puerto Rico, and Cuba.
Who were Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner?
Slave revolt leaders.
Were the slave codes legal? Why didn't they work?
No they weren't legalized. Enforcement was too shoddy.
Where did most of the free Africans go?
To cities where they could get property. Only about half were actually in the North.
How did the planters keep power?
Domininating the slate legislature.
Why did the poor whites defend the slave system?
They still believed they were better, and they hoped one day they would get slaves of their own.
Who were the mountain people?
People from the mountains in the South that opposed slavery. They were all for the Union and raised self-sustaining crops.
What was education like in the South?
Upper class put a huge emphasis on education. No one else really gets one though.
How did the Natives adapt to their new life on the plains?
They rode horseback. A few tribes herded buffalo.
Why was the frontier dangerous before the Civil War?
Indian raids. Malnutrition and diseases. Away from all educated people.
What was another name for the Age of Jackson?
The Age of the Common Man.
Why was their male suffrage during the Jacksonian Era?
Men strived for equality. At least white equality. Everyone pushed to have their gifts or talents get them further. All white men began to be able to vote and hold office regardless of class or religion.
What was "King Caucus"?
It was a closed-door meeting of political party members in Congress that decided on the runners for office.
What was King Caucus replaced by?
Large meeting halls where political party leaders and the commoners would decide on who to nominate. Anti-Masons were the first to do it.
Who were the Anti-Masons?
They reached out to groups who had shown little interest in politics. They attacked the secret lives of the Masons.
How were the presidential electors chosen?
By the people of the state.
What was the spoils system?
Jackson gave power in government to his friends and those he owed, rather than those qualified.
Who won the election of 1824?
John Quincy Adams.
How did the Corrupt Bargain come to be?
Jackson and JQA didn't recieve enough electoral votes. jackson had more popular votes.
What was the corrupt bargain?
JQA convinced Clay to get him the votes he needed for pres to be secretary of state.
What was the Tariff of 1828 called, and who put it into place?
JQA, Tariff of Abominations.
Who dominated the election of 1828?
What was the Peggy Eaton affair?
Peggy Eaton, a wife of Jackson's cabinet member, was bullied by the other wives. Jackson got angry because they had made fun of his wife in the election. He tried to force the cabinet to be nice, but they resigned. Late Calhoun did too, Van Buren became the new VP.
What was the Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)?
Ruled that the Cherokees weren't a foreign nation that could sue in a federal court.
What was Worcester v. Georgia (1832)?
Ruled that the Georgian laws had no ruling in Cherokee territory.
Wat was the Indian Removal Act (183)?
It allowed for the president to move the Natives to wherever was conveniant.
What was the Trail of Tears?
Thousands of Cherokee moved, many die on the way.
How did Jackson view state's rights?
He favored them.
What was Jackson's view on central government?
Limit Congress and Judicial power. Strengthen executive power.
Why did South Carolina attempt to nullify the Tariff of Abominations?
They thought it was crippling their economy.
What was SC's ideology behind the Nullification Theory?
Each state had the right to obey a federal law or declare it null.
What were the Webster-Hayne debates?
Webster and Hayne both fought over the nature of the Union under the Constitution.
What did Jackson feel about the Nullification Theory?
He just wanted to keep the Union together. He passed a Force bill which allowed him to bring the military to SC. They backed off then, in exchange for lowering the tariff.
Who was the leader behind the Nullification crises?
John C. Calhoun.
Why did Jackson veto the rechartering of the National Bank?
He thought it served the rich and wealthy only. He supported states rights. He didn't like Biddle, and Biddle was conspiring with Clay to recharter it.
What does Jackson do after destroying the National Bank?
He gets a new Secretary of Treasury, Roger Taney, who deposits the money into state banks (pet banks).
How did the Whigs differ from the Democrats?
They favored an expanded federal government, they feared ultra rapid expansion of the economy
How did the Democrats differ from the Whigs?
They favored a steady growing economy, the common man (white male), and pro-states rights.
What was the Specie Circular?
It required that all future purchases of federal lands be made in gold or silver.
Why did the Panic of 1837 occur?
Specie Circular. People couldn't exchange money for gold at banks. Europe pulls out of our stock..
How does Van Buren handle the Panic of 1837?
Mostly just Laissez-faire. He creates a treasurey system where the banks ad government are divorced. No federal money goes into a private bank.
Who wins the election of 1840?
William Henry Harrison, however he dies soon and John Tyler takes over.
What is the antebellum period?
The decades before the Civil War characterized by movements of reform and change.
Why did the Second Great Awakening occur?
Lots of focus was put into reason and Enlightenment, and religious faith was weakening.
Who was Timothy Dwight?
A leader in the Second Great Awakening. He was a leader of revivals.
Who was Charles G. Finney?
A revivalist in New York ("burned over district") who made people fear damnation. He told people they were free through faith and hard work. The middle class loved these ideas.
What two denominations dominated the South in the Antebellum period?
Baptists and Methodists
Who was William miller?
He told people that Christ was coming again soon. They were called the Millerites.
Who was Joseph Smith?
The founder of the Mormons.
What was the Mormon faith based on?
They were connected through Native Americans to the lost tribes of Israel. They were mostly in New York, history in them hills.
Where did the Mormons go after Illinois, and who took over?
They want to the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Brigham Young took over.
What was the Romantic movement?
The idea that stressed intuition, feelings, individual acts of heroism, and the study of nature.
Who were the transcendentalists?
New Englanders who believed that humans had to grasp reason, which was using intellect and emotions. Understanding wasn't enough.
Who was Ralph Waldo Emerson?
He was a nationalist transcendentalist who urged for a unique American culture. He argued for self-reliance, independent thinking, and the primacy of spiritual matters. He was anti-slavery.
Who was Henry David Thoreau?
He wrote the book Walden, where he lived in solidarity for two years. He was a huge advocate of using nature to find oneself. he also wrote an essay "On Civil Disovediance" which stressed nonviolent protest. He encouraged people to not pay taxes if it encouraged unjust things (Mexican War).
Who started Brooks Farm?
What was Brooks Farm known for (1841)?
It was a community where everyone worked together towards self-realization. It was kind of socialist, fell apart though.
Who were the Shakers?
They redifined women's roles by making them equal. Everyone was celibate. They were known for their shake They desired social order over individual freedom.
Who started the Shakers?
Mother Ann Lee.
Who started new harmony?
What was New Harmony?
A prominent utopian community that focused on the problems that the Industrial Revolution caused.
who started the Oneida Community?
John Humphrey Noyes.
What was the Oneida Community known for?
Sex was very controlled. People could have multiple partners, but it was monitors. Woman wanted to be lberated from lust. The society raised kids, not parents.
Who was Charles Fourier?
A French socialist that started Fourier Phalanxes. They were socialist communities.
What was the Hudson River School?
During the Antebellum Period, the Hudson River School was a community of painters that painted American nature and ordinary things. They wanted to prove that America > Europe.
Who was Washington Irving and what did he write about?
He wrote "The Legend of Sleepy hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle" which idealized American life.
Who was James Fenimore Cooper and what did he write about?
he wrote about American wilderness and nature. "The Last of the Mohecans" "The Deer Slayer".
Who was Walt Whitman and what did he write about?
He wrote the poetry "The Leaves of Grass", which stressed individualism and democracy.
Who was Edgar Allen Poe?
he wrote "The Raven" and was very dark and morbid.
Who was herman Melville?
he wrote Moby Dick, which conveyed courage, individualism, and revenge.
Who was Nathaniel Hawthorne and what did he write about?
He wrote The Scarlet letter, which focused on pride, faith in oneself, and realism.
Why was the temperance movement so huge in the Antebellum Period?
People drank. Heavily. People blamed it as the source for crime, poverty, and social unrest. Women liked it because then their husbands would stop spending time, money, and abuse.
What was the American temperance Society?
A society formed that encouraged people to be abstinent of drinking through moral arguments.
Who were the Washingtonians?
They helped recovering alcoholics in the 1840s by saying it was a disease.
Who opposed the Temperance Movements?
Irish and German immigrants.
What did the asylum movement open?
What was the purpose of the asylums?
To reform criminals, not just put them in jail.
Who was Dorothea Dix?
She tried to improve conditions for criminals and especially emotional disturbed people. She got mental hospitals opened.
Who were Thomas Gallaudet and Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe?
They opened up schools for the blind and deaf during the Antebellum period.
What were penitentiaries?
They put prisoners in solitory, hoping that they would reflect and repend for their sins.
What was the Auburn system?
In New York, it was a strong enforcement of rules on prisoners. It put in moral and work programs for the prisoners.
Who was Horace Mann?
he was a major reformer of education in the 1830s. he stressed that democracy was pushed through public education.
What was the effect of the education reforms in the 1830s?
Literacy skyrocketed in the North and South. Specialized jobs opened for those with an education in industry and business.
What were the McGuffey readers?
Textbooks that were pushed in the 30s that taught children morals.
Why were men and women roles strengthened during the Industrial Revolution?
Men went to work. Women pretty much had to stay at home and take care of the children.
Who was Sarah Grimke?
She wrote the letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1837).
Who were Lecretia mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Two major feminist women.
What was the Seneca Falls Convention (1848)?
A feminist meeting.
What was the document written at the Seneca Falls Convention?
The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions. It plagiarized the Declaration of Independence.
What was the American Colonization Society?
It tried to send free Africans back to Africa. They wanted to banish free blacks from society.
Who started the American Antislavery Society (1831)?
William Lloyd Garrison.
What newspaper did Garrison write?
What view of slavery did Garrison hold?
The immediate end to all forms of slavery in all areas.
What was the Liberty Party?
They were a political abolitionist party. Similar to the Free-Soil party.
Who was Frederick Douglas?
A former slave that wrote The North Star.
What was Douglas' view on slavery?
A slow, gradual decline to the end of slavery.
Who were other major black abolitionists?
Harriet tubman, David Ruggles, Sojourner Truth, and William Still.
What did David Walker and Henry Garnet advocate?
That slaves revolt against their master.
What was Nat Turner's rebellion?
it was in the South in 1831, Nat Turner got 55 whites killed. In retaliation the whites killed a bunch of people.
What was the American Peace Society (1828)?
They wanted to abolish war. They influenced New England reformers to oppose the Mexican War.
Who was Sylvester Graham?
He invented graham crackers (people wanted to eat all whole grains during the Antebellum period.
What was phrenology?
The idea that the shape and size of a person's skull determined their character and ability.
What was Manifest Denisty?
The idea that it was America's destiny to expand.
Why did lots of Americans go to Texas?
Mexico was offering land to those who settled there.
Who was Stephen Austin?
The man who brought tons of Americans to Texas.
Who was Antonio López de Santa Anna?
The crazy dictator of Mexico.
Who was Sam Houston?
The man who took over Austin's military leadership when he got sick.
What was the Alamo?
Where mexicans slaughtered a ton of americans.
How did Texas get its independence?
Houson captured Santa Anna and forced him to sign a treaty that gave Texas its independence.
Did the Mexican government acknowledge the treaty at the Battle of the San Jacinto River?
Why did both Jackson and Van Buren deny Texas' request for annexation?
Political opposition, Mexican war, upset slave-state free-state balance
What was the Webster-Ashburton Treaty?
It divided the land between Maine and Canada that they had disputed over. Also settled boundary for Minnesota.
Why was Oregon disputed over so much?
Russia, U.S., Britain, and Spain all had claims over it.
Why did the U.S. claim Oregon?
Lewis and Clark, the Astor trading fur post, and they had discovered the Colombia River.
Who won the election of 1844?
James K. Polk.
Who did Polk take after?
What did Polk favor that differed him from a lot of others?
Annexation of Texas, California, and Texas.
What was "Fifty-four Forty or Fight"?
The slogan used by many people supporting Oregon. This was a reference to the latitude line between Alaska and Oregon.
What is a dark horse?
A lesser known candidate whose just thrown in there (Polk).
Who got Texas annexed?
How did Polk handle the Oregon dispute?
He made a treaty with Britain.
What was in the Oregon treaty (not name) with Britain?
Oregon split in half at the 49th parallel. U.S. gave Vancouver Island and allowed Britain to sail the Columbia River.
Why did Senate approve of the Oregon treaty with Britain?
War was already started with Mexico. Don't fight Britain too.
Who did Polk send to convince Mexico to sell Cali and New Mexico, and settle the border between Texas and Mexico?
What did Mexico reject from Slidell?
A 25 million dollar offer for California.
How did Polk attempt to convince Congress to go to war with Mexico?
The debt they owed America.
Who led American troops in the Mexican War?
Why did Congress approve of the Mexican War?
Mexicans had killed some provoking Americans on the Rio Grande.
What was the Spot Resolution, and who made it?
Lincoln made it. It demanded for physical evidence that Mexicans had killed an American on their own soil.
Who was John C. Fremont?
The person in Cali who overthrew Mexican rule and created the Bear Flag Republic.
Who took over Mexico City?
Who took Sante Fe?
What did the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo do?
It established the Rio Grande as the border of Texas, and the U.S. would give Mexico 15 million for California and New Mexico.
What was the Wilmot Proviso?
It forbade the use of slavery in any territory obtained from Mexico.
What was the purpose of the Wilmot Proviso?
To stop the expansion of slavery.
What was the Young America movement?
A political movement that favored expansion and free trade.
What was the Ostend Manifesto?
The idea of purchasing Cuba from Spain by Pierce.
Why did Southerners support the Ostend Manifesto?
Another slave state.
Who was William Walker and what did he do?
He was a Southern expansionist that tried to take Central America without the government's support and make them pro-slave.
What was the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)?
It said that neither Britain nor the U.S. could make any canal route in central america.
What was the Gadsden Purchase (1853)?
It gave America the Southern areas of New Mexico and Arizona for 10 million.
Why was the Gadsden Purchase important?
It opened up the idea that a trans-continental railroad would be built in the South.
What was the Great American Desert?
The area in the 1850s and 1860s between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast. Hardly populated.
Who were the Mountain Men?
Fur traders who went to the west to trade with Natives.
What was the mining frontier?
The tons of gold in California.
Who did the gold rush attract?
Dream seekers in the East who followed many long arduous trails to get there, and Chinese people.
Why did the trip west eliminate lower class people?
It was expensive.
What was the Urban Frontier?
The newly sprung cities in the west. (San Fransisco, Detroit).
What industrial technology was invented in the 40s?
The sewing machine and the the electric telegraph.
Who invented the sewing machine?
What were canals replaced by?
What did the railroads do?
Connected the East and Midwest. Allowed for Eastern products to get shipped faster. Northern advantage in the Civil War.
Who was Matthew C. Perry?
He went to Japan and opened up negotiations there with trade.
Why did the Panic of 1857 occur?
Inflation from the gold rush. Farmers overplant wheat. Lots of people buy land on credit.
What were the causes of the civil war?
Slavery, constitutional disputes, economic differences, and political blunders and extremism
What was the Free-Soil Movement?
It a political group that favored limiting the expansion of slavery, and they supported free homesteads and internal movements.
Who was Lewis Cass?
He was one of the first advocates of popular sovereignty.
Who won the election of 1848?
Who wrote the Compromise of 1850?
What things did the Compromise of 1850 include?
- California becomes a free state- Southwest organized without restricting slavery- deny Texas claim to Rio Grande- Assume Texas's debt- abolish slave trade in DC- Slavery allowed in DC- Create more effective fugitive slave laws- Congress has no right to interfere with interstate slave trade
Who wrote the Omnibus Bill?
Who takes over after Taylor dies?
What was in the Omnibus Bill?
- California admitted as a free state- New Mexico a territory and Rio Grande border of Texas solved- Utah territory and slavery not referenced, popular sovereignty- New fugitive slave slave laws- Slave trade abolished in DC, but slavery not
What was the Fugitive Slave Act?
Northerners were required to chase after any runaway slaves.
Why wasn't the Fugitive Slave Act all that effective?
Hard to enforce.
What was the Underground Railroad?
It helped slaves escape into the North or Canada. Hariet Tubman led it.
What was Uncle Tom's Cabin?
An antislavery book written in 1852.
Who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe.
What was the Impending Crisis of the South?
A book that showed how slavery was hurting Southern economics.
Who wrote Impending Crisis of the South?
Hinton R. Helper.
Who was George Fitzhugh?
He wrote tons of proslavery books in the 1850s. He compared the capitalist system to slavery in the North.
Who won the election of 1852?
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) do?
It split Kansas and Nebraska and allowed them to decide on slavery through popular sovereignty.
Why did Douglas push for the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
So the transcontinental railroad could go through the North. Thus, teh moneybags.
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act do the Compromise of 1820?
It essentially destroyed it.
What was the Republican Party's focus?
They focused on the North and West. They wanted to limit the expansion of slavery, and they also supported homestead stuff. They also liked them tariffs.
Who won the election of 1856?
What was the New England Emigrant Aid Company?
They moved anti-slavery people to Kansas to push for an antislavery Kansas.
What was "bleeding Kansas"?
Proslavery and antislavery people fight over popular sovereignty to decide whether Kansas is slave or free state.
Where did the proslavery people gather in Kansas?
Where did the antislavery people gather in Kansas?
What was the Sumner-Brooks Incedent?
Sumner was a senator who gave a speech "The Crime Against Kansas" and he also personally attacked another SC senator, Brooks. Butler's nephew, Brooks, then caned Sumner. Brooks became a hero in the South.
What was the Lecompton Constitution?
Lecompton passed a proslavery Constitution for Kansas. Buchanan vetoed it because not all of Kansas agreed. It got vetoed twice by the antislavery people until finally it passed, and Kansas was a free state.
Why was the Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) case?
Dred Scott wanted his freedom because he had been on free soil for two years before he returned.
Who was Chief Justice during the Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) case?
Roger Taney, a democrat.
What did Taney rule in the Dred Scott case?
Dred had no right to to sue in a federal court because the original Constitution didn't intend for Africans to be citizens. Congress couldn't deprive a person of their property without due process of law. Declared Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
What were the Lincoln-Douglas Debates?
Debates between Lincoln and Douglas for senator.
What does Lincoln ask Douglas at Freepoint, Illinois debate?
Who should have ultimate authority over slavery in the new territory?
How does Douglas answer Lincoln at Freepoint?
He says that he agrees with Dred Scott, but it's more important that the people have what they want in their territory.