File - Mr. Haan's Science

Chapter 1
Sprague Lake
Rocky Mt. National Park
A. What is Earth Science?
a. Earth science – science which deals
with earth and its neighbors in space
b. Geology – study of the earth
1) Physical geology – study of things
that make the earth and explanations
for its processes
2) Historical geology – history of the
c. Oceanography
d. Meteorology
e. Astronomy
f. Paleontology
Dordt College Observatory
B. A View of Earth
Earth’s major spheres
a. Hydrosphere
1) Water makes earth unique
2) Water is in a constant cycle
3) 97% of water is seawater
4) 3% of water is freshwater
b. Atmosphere
1) Gas surrounding the earth
2) Purpose
a) Air we breathe
b) Protection from sun
c) Produces weather
and climate
d) Allows life
c. Geosphere
1) Core – center of earth
2) Mantle – middle layer
3) Crust – outer layer
4) Lithosphere – upper mantle and crust
5) Asthenosphere – upper mantle below
d. Biosphere
1) Includes all life on earth
2) Extends from ocean floor into the
3) Helps maintain and alter environment
2. Plate Tectonics
a. Constructive forces – mt. building and
b. Destructive forces – weathering and
c. Lithosphere is broken into plates
d. Plates move b/c heat
e. Causes earthquakes, volcanoes,
mountain building
New Madrid Fault Line
C. Representing Earth’s Surface
Determining Location
a. Global Grid
1) Latitude – run east-west
a) Distance N or S from equator
b) Degrees
2) Longitude – run north-south
a) Distance E or W from prime
b) Degrees
3) Equator
a) Middle of globe running E and W
b) 0◦
c) Above = North, below = South
4) Prime meridian
a) Middle of globe running N and S
b) 0◦
c) Right = East, Left = West
b. Globes
2. Maps and Mapping
a. Impossible to display earth on a flat
surface without some distortions
b. Mercator, Robinson, Conic, Gnomonic
projections (pg 13)
3. Topographic Maps
a. Shows earth’s 3D surface in 2D
b. Shows elevation with contour lines
c. Typically include water, major roads,
some buildings, and place names
What do closer
lines mean?
d. Contour lines
1) Every position along the same line is
the same elevation
2) Closer lines = steeper slope
3) Circles = hills
4) Never touch
or intersect
e. Scale
f. Geologic maps
1) Shows types and age of rocks
2) Contour lines are often included
D. Earth System Science
What is a system?
a. Any size group of interacting parts that
form a whole
b. Closed system – energy/matter moves
in/out of the system but never leaves
the system
c. Open system – energy/matter moves
in and out of the system
2. Earth as a system
a. Powered by sun and internal heat
b. Earth’s systems can be seconds to
thousands of years
c. One process can change other
d. People affect earth’s systems
e. Ex. of systems – water, tectonic,
climate systems, etc.
E. What is Scientific Inquiry?
2 assumptions
a. World behaves in a consistent and
predictable manner
b. With careful study we can explain the
natural world
2. Scientific method
a. State the problem
b. Gather background knowledge
c. Hypothesis
1) Must be testable
2) Can be right or wrong
3) Can have more than 1
4) Possible solution for the problem based
off previous knowledge
d. Experiment – test your hypothesis
e. Conclusion – accept, modify, reject
f. Repeat
3. Laws and Theories
a. Theory
1) Well tested and widely accepted but
could possibly change
2) Can become a law
b. Law – well tested and completely
accepted with little/no chance of changing