Database Principles: Fundamentals of Design,
Ninth Edition
Carlos Coronel, Steven Morris, and Peter Rob
You are expected to have clear concepts and an in depth knowledge
to Design, Implement and Manage a Modern Database system. You
also have to submit a research paper at the end of the course. It
entirely depends on you. “An example can be consistency tradeoffs in
Modern Distributed Database System Design”. You can work in
groups should not be more than 3 students. After selecting the
relevant research topic you than have to submit a proposal not more
than 2 pages, (individually). It must clearly explain what are you
doing? And how are you going to do this? Final submission of the
research paper is due in week 12 till Thursday 9pm. Presentations
schedule will be announced later on. The research paper has to be on
modern standards. Both soft and hard copies should be submitted.
Course Assessment:
Course Project
Mid Term
Final Examination
15% (5% for
S You will learn;
S What is a Database and what is a Database Management
S Why Database is a valuable entity for Decision Making?
S What is a Modern Database System?
S Design Importance of a Database System
S The main components of the Database System and Main
functions of Database Management systems (DBMS)
S There are three critical aspects that you need to consider;
1. Design of a Database
2. Implementation
3. Management
Why Databases?
S They can solve so many problems that are encountered in
Data Management.
S Databases are used almost every where examples are
Business, Research, Administration.
S Can you now think of the differences between a
traditional Database and a Modern Database System, any
S The critical aspect is however to understand how
Databases interact with other applications.
Database Concepts
S The benefits of DBMS are taken for granted by most of public.
S It must have the ability to store/ access or change any
S In 1970’s the Databases were very difficult to navigate and they
were not flexible, one of the reasons might be that there were
limited resources (Languages were not well developed)
S The programmer should know what clients want as it is a time
consuming and expensive process in the long run
Examples of some Modern
Database Systems.
S In Business:
S If you want to operate a Business what entities do you
S That very information should be available to Decision
S You need to collect data, store data, manipulate,
aggregate and Manage the Data.
Database Design is Complex
S Databases are very complex to examine because all database
designs are effected by the real world transactions.
S The way data is distributed and even increasing information
cause severe problems.
S Real scenarios are effected by;
No of Users, Current Generation, Distributed Information
Implementation of a Database
S Implementation of Database is based on SQL (Structured
Query Management).
The relevant information will be delivered later on that will
include why SQL? What Modern Industries are using to
implement a Database System.
For the time being don’t worry and cheer up 
Database Management
S Though it is a broad concept but the main and critical
aspects are;
S You should be able to administrate the database and
should consider the security parameters.
S It will be hardly expected from you if you join any
industry that they will ask you to implement a database,
almost all organizations in the world do have strong
database systems, they need you to manage and
understand the design concepts so that you should expand
it if required!
Yours favorite Database
S Can you tell me what is your favorite
Database System and why do you think
it is one of the best?
Data VS Information
S What drives a Database Design YOU must know what is
a Data? and what is an information?
S Data: Raw facts, that has not been processed to reveal its
meaning. Message, Bits, Frames without processing is
classed as a Data.
S Information: The result achieved after processing the data
is called information. Mission accomplished once you
know the meaning of Data, it is an Information.
Data VS Information Continued
S Data is building blocks of Information.
S Information is produced by processing the Data and
Information is used to reveal the Meaning of Data
S Accurate, relevant and timely information is the key to
make good decision making.
S If an organization wants to survive they need to have good
decision making.
S Can you think of one real time environment
that has been strongly effected by the increase
in the number of users and one real time
environment that has not been effected?
Work in the groups, you have 10 to 15 Minutes
and than you have to come up with an example.
Database; Introduction
S Tell me whether or not the statement is correct, “Efficient
Database Management required the use of a strong
computer Database”
S Database: Shared , Integrated Computer Structure that
stores a collection of; End User Data and Metadata. End
User data are raw facts for an interest of end users and
metadata is data about data. In other words provides the
characteristic and relationships of data
Role of DBMS
S An intermediary between the user and the database
S Database structures are stored as file collection that can only
be access through DBMS.
S DBMS enables Data to be shared and it also integrates
many users.
Advantages of DBMS
S Improved Data Sharing
S Improved Data Security
S Better Data Integration
S Minimized data in consistency
S Improved data access
S Improved decision making
S Increased end user productivity
Group Activity
S After considering the role and advantages of the Database
Management system consider Google Database
management system and demonstrate the Advantages and
Disadvantages of Google.
S You can form again a group of 3-4 students, you have 10
minutes think about it and present it.
S After the discussion please write one to two pages report
and submit it in 2 weeks from now. This is your assignment
no 1 and it will give you 1 marks.
Types of Databases
S They can be classified according to the;
-No of Users
-Database Locations
-Expected type and extent of Use
Single user database will support one user at a time, example
is Desktop database: A Single user that runs on PC
Multiuser database supports multiple users at one time.
Example is your library database. It is called as workgroup
Types of Databases Continued
S If the data is located a single site it is called Centralized
S If the data is distributed across several sites they are called
as Distributed Database
S Company’s day to day operations are supported by
Operational database also called as transactional or
operational Database
S For tactical or strategic decisions Data warehouse is used
Types of Databases Continued
S Unstructured data exist in their original state
S Structured data result from formatting
S Structure applied based on type of processing to be
S Semi structured data have been processed to some extent
S Extensible Markup Language (XML) represents data
elements in textual format
S XML database supports semi structured XML data