Chapter 1

Chapter 12
Business/IT Solutions
Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
Use the systems development process outlined
in this chapter and the model of IS
components from Chapter 1 as problem–
solving frameworks to help you propose
information systems solutions to simple
business problems.
Describe and give examples to illustrate how
you might use each of the steps of the
information systems development life cycle to
develop and implement a buiness information
Learning Objectives
Explain how prototyping can be used as an
effective technique to improve the process of
systems development for end users and IS
Understand the basics of project management
and its importance to a successful systems
development effort.
Identify the activities involved in the
implementation of new information systems.
Learning Objectives
Compare and Contrast the four basic
information system conversion strategies.
Describe several evaluation factors that should
be considered in evaluating the acquisition of
hardware, software, and IS services.
Section 1
Developing Business Systems
II. The Systems Approach
 Uses a systems orientation to defining and solving
problems and opportunities
 Problem Solving – there are specific steps in solving
any problem
 Recognize/Define a Problem or Opportunity – recognize it
 Develop and Evaluate Alternative System Solutions – what are
the different ways to solve this problem?
 Select the Best System Solution – decide which alternative is
 Design the Selected System Solution – design the system for
the chosen solution
 Implement and Evaluate the Success of the Designed System
– put the solution into effect and monitor results for the
IV. Starting the Systems Development
Life Cycle
V. Systems Analysis
• A detailed study of the current system and
organizational needs
• Organizational Analysis – you must have a thorough
understanding of the organization to make the system
work well
• Analysis of the Present System – “those who fail to
study history are doomed to repeat it”, a complete
understanding of the current system is critical
• Logical Analysis – create logical models the current
system, WHAT the system does without regard to
• Functional Requirements Analysis and Determination
– what Information is required for each business
activity and what Processing is required in the system
VI. Systems Design
• Create a new system to solve the
• Prototyping – create working models of the
proposed system
• The Prototyping Process – prototypes are
developed quickly for trial by users to obtain
user feedback
• User Interface Design – critical because the
interface is the part of the systems closest to
the user
• System Specifications – listing of elements that
formalize the design
VI. Systems Design
The Prototyping Process
VII. Technical Note: Overview of ObjectOriented Analysis and Design
 Objects – anything a programmer wants to manage or
 Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)
 Inheritance – ability to inherit properties of a higherorder object
 Modularity – a series of interlinked yet stand-alone
 Polymorphism – different behavior based on conditions
 Encapsulation – concealing all the properties inside the
 Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) – modeling the problem
domain as an object-oriented system
 Object-Oriented Design (OOD) – create solutions using
Section 2
Implementing Strategic Business Systems
III. Project Management
 What Is a Project? – a set of activities with a
beginning and an end, has goals and tasks, may have
constraints (limitations)
 The Process of Project Management – five phases:
 Initiation and Defining – state the problem and identify
objectives and resources, explore costs/benefits
 Planning – identify and sequence objectives/activities
 Executing – put plans into motion
 Controlling – ensure project objectives and deadlines
are met
 Closing – install deliverables, release resources, end the
V. Other Implementation Activities
Testing – testing and debugging are important,
does the system work as it should?
Data Conversion – new implementations often
require replacing software and databases
Documentation – an important means of
communication, often overlooked
Training – training users is vital, usually underbudgeted, and expensive
V. Other Implementation Activities
 Postimplementation Activities – Use and Maintenance
– the longest and most costly phase of a system’s life;
correct errors, improve performance, adapt to changes
in the business environment
 Systems Maintenance – making changes to the system
 Corrective – fix errors
 Adaptive – adding new functionality
 Perfective – improve performance
 Preventative – reduce chances of future system failure
 Postimplementation Review – ensure the new system
meets established business objectives
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