Origins of the State PP

Origins of the State
a body of people,
living in a defined space,
with the power to make and enforce
laws without having to check with
any higher authority,
and with an
organization to do this.
a body of
living in a
defined space,
with the power to make
and enforce laws without
having to check with any
higher authority,
and with an
organization to do
That’s us!
Definition: People who are the
members or citizens of a state
 The size of the population doesn’t matter
 Population has a big influence on the type of
government chosen by the state:
• Is the population rural or urban?
• What do people do for jobs?
• Do people get along or disagree on
basic issues?
Definition: the area in which
a state’s rule applies
 A state must have set boundaries, but they
are not always agreed on.
 Boundaries can change in three ways:
• war – people win or lose territory
• negotiation – people agree to trade
• purchase – states can buy territory from
other states
Definition: the ability to rule
absolutely within a given territory
Because of sovereignty…
 states can set their own foreign policy
and agendas.
 states are all equal in theory, but in
reality that isn’t always the case.
Definition: the organization that
makes and enforces the laws
 Government has many roles that
all involve making public policy, but
there are four main ways their
governing affects the public…
• Keeping Order
• Protecting the Country
• Providing Services
• Making Economic Decisions
That’s us!
Keeping Order
 Making and enforcing
laws is all a part of keeping
order in society
 Structures like the
police force and court
system are in place to
enforce the laws and
settle disputes
Protecting the
 The government is
responsible for defending
the territory of the state
 Security organizations like the Department of
Homeland Security and the Department of
Defense are established to protect citizens
 Treaties and alliances are formed with other
countries to help keep our citizens safe
Providing Services
 The government is
responsible for providing
basic services…
 Programs for people who need help:
• help buying food
• welfare
• medical services
 Programs to keep people safe:
• medicine
• food
• buildings
Making Economic
 The government makes
decisions every day about
how it spends money
 The government also makes decisions about
how our economy is going to function
 Most public policy set by the government has to
do with how money is spent!!
4 Theories that Explain the Origins of
the State
Force Theory
The state was born by force.
One person or group claimed control and forced all within that area
to submit to that person’s rule
The physically stronger person became chief of the tribe and then
they fight other tribes
Evolutionary Theory
The state was developed naturally out of the early family
Head of the house is the head of the family
As the family developed networks of families became clans which
became tribes and then a state was born
Religion plays a huge part
Divine Right Theory
Started with Aztecs, Mayan, Egyptians, China Japan and then very
accepted in the 15th -18th centuries by the Europeans
God created the state
God gave “divine right” to rule: royalty was only accountable to
God because he created the state
Social Contract Theory
Human beings in their unpleasant conditions agreed together to
create the state
A contract was agreed upon and within that contract the people
only gave as much power that was need to keep them safe.
This power was given to a government voluntarily from free people
The state only exists to sever the will of the people
The people are the sole source of political power and that they are
free to give or withhold power from the government
This theory promotes the ideas of popular sovereignty limited gov’t
and individual rights