 Textbook Reading
 Chapter 1: The Peopling of the World Prehistory – 2500 B.C.
 Chapter 2: Early River Valley Civilizations 3500 BC – 450 B.C.
 Chapter 3: People and Ideas on the Move 2000 BC – 250 BC
Confucianism: Chinese philosophy  Babylonian: a civilization in the
that promotes
Mesopotamian region that
Slash and burn agriculture: Cut &
thrived under Hammurabi, but
burn a field to clear it – ashes are
quickly fell to Akkadians after his
used as fertilizer.
death. They built ziggurats and
Domestication: taming of animals
used cuneiform
Indo-Europeans: Pastoral people  Nomad: highly mobile people
from the steppes area (grasslands)
who moved from place to place
who believed to have migrated
foraging, or searching for a new
down spreading their language
food source
across the continents.
 Civilization: A complex culture
Hittites: Indo-European people
with 5 characteristics: advanced
who occupied Anatolia (modern
cities, specialized workers,
day Turkey) and spread their
complex institutions, record
culture/language throughout the
keeping, & advanced technology
Middle East and Europe
 Barter: Initiating trade without
Palestine/Canaan: Promised land
the use of money
of the Hebrews located at the SE
 Phoenicians: Mediterranean
end of the Mediterranean Sea
people who developed an
Bronze Age: Started in Sumer
alphabet that influences ours
around 3000 BC – a time when
today. (Phonetic)
Sumerians began using Bronze
 Fertile Crescent: Fertile land
instead of copper and stone.
between the Tigris and Euphrates
City-state: A city that operates
rivers. Home to the first
and functions as an independent
civilization, Mesopotamia
state or country.
 Sumer: City in Mesopotamia
Hebrew: Early Jewish people,
where Sargon defeated the
originally migrated from
Sumerians and created the
Mesopotamia to Canaan, the
world’s first empire called the
promised land
Akkadian Empire
Hammurabi: King of the
 Hinduism: One of the oldest
Babylonian empire at its peak
polytheistic religions in history –
around. He left a legacy of the
Brought to India by the Aryans
first set of written laws which
and still popular today.
were extremely harsh called
 Judaism: Oldest monotheistic
Hammurabi’s code
religion. Founder Abraham,
Torah: Most sacred writings of the
followers are the
Hebrews; makes up part of the
Old Testament of the Bible
 Artifact: human made objects,
Lucy: Skeleton of an early female
such as clothing, tools, and
hominid found in Africa who
walked upright and had opposable  Vedas: The sacred texts of the
Aryans which influence Hinduism
Mandate of Heaven: A system of
greatly. 4 texts total, the most
the ancient Chinese rulers who
important is the Rig Veda
would declare previous emperors  Indus River Valley: Ancient
unfit and overthrow their dynasty.
people who had advancements in
sewer systems, brick building,
and grid systems. (India)
 Neolithic Revolution: The
beginning of agriculture/farming
 Paleolithic Age: Old Stone Age
(roughly 2.5 million B.C. to 8000
 Hunter-gatherers: Early nomads
who spend the majority of their
time hunting food, and collecting
 Specialization: the development of
skills in a specific kind of work
 Ziggurat: An ancient pyramid type
building in ancient Sumer
(Mesopotamia) that was a place or
worship as well as storage for grain
and supplies.
 Cuneiform: Wedge-shaped system
of writing in early Mesopotamia.
Created for record keeping such as
tax collecting, passing laws, and
storage of grain.
 Mesopotamia: “land between the
rivers” that is in modern day Iraq. A
group of people called the
Sumerians settled here and began
the first known complex
 Ur: The center of early Sumerian
 Buddhism: Religion/Philosophy
created by Siddhartha Gautama as
a result of his discontent with the
Hindu religion and the caste system
of India. Believes in equality and
reincarnation – rejects the caste
system. Goal is to reach Nirvana,
which is the release from human
 Zoroastrianism: Monotheistic
religion of ancient Persia as
founded by Zoroaster; one of the
world's faiths that bears the closest
resemblance to Judaism and
 Egypt: Nile river valley civilization
who had a theocracy, worshipped
Pharaohs, and advanced calendars,
geometry, and medicine