Name ____________________________ Period ____________________________ Date _____________________________ A Flawed Peace After reading pgs. 858-861 answer the following questions 1. Where was the meeting to work out the terms of the peace after WWI held, who were the Big Four, where were they from and who was not represented. WHY? Versailles Big Four = Wilson of USA, Clemenceau of France, George of Britain, Orlando of Italy Not represented – Russia (busy with revolution) and Germany and its allies (Losers) Wilson’s goal of achieving a just peace differed from the peace objectives of France and Britain. 1. What were the guiding principles of Wilson’s Fourteen Points? 2. What were the concerns and aims of France and Britain? Fourteen Points: plan by Wilson for achieving a just and lasting peace Guiding idea: self-determination – letting people decide for themselves under what government they wished to live End to secret treaties, Freedom of the seas, free trade, reduced size of armies and navies, adjusting colonial claims with fairness to colonial peoples 14th Point – creating a “general association of nations” to peacefully negotiate solutions to world conflicts Concerned with national security Wanted to strip Germany of war-making power Not so interested in Wilson’s vision of peace After heated debate and compromise, the Treaty of Versailles is signed. 3. In what ways did the treaty punish Germany? 4. How did the treaty change the world map? 5. How was Wilson’s Fourteenth Point incorporated into the treaty? Treaty of Versailles – ended WW1 Germany lost substantial territory and had severe restrictions placed on its military Placed sole responsibility on Germany (war guilt) As a result, Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies All Germany’s colonies in Africa and Pacific declared mandates, or territories to be managed by League of Nations until ready for independence Huge land losses for Central Powers New countries created out of A-H Empire Ottoman Turks had to give up all of empire except for present-day Turkey Russia lost land; some of it became new independent nations Treaty created the League of Nations whose goal was to keep peace The legacy of Versailles was one of bitterness and loss. 6. Why did the United States reject the treaty? Many Americans believed the US’ best hope for peace was to stay out of European affairs Lacked support of US and then other world powers, it could not take action on complaints War guilt clause left a legacy of bitterness and hatred in hearts of German people Africans and Asians in mandated territories felt their desire for independence was ignored Japan and Italy had entered war to gain territory, but gained less than they wanted 7. How did this rejection affect the League of Nations? 8. Why did many countries feel bitter and cheated as a result of the treaty?