Jorgen Tesman Task: Examine the presentation of Tesman and Lovborg in the play ‘Hedda Gabler’ Think about how Ibsen presents them as contrasting figures in the play. Produce an analysis of the sections you have been given and analyse the effect of the quotes you select too. Group 1 - Claudia, Nick and Sabrina (Tesman - initial descriptions, Act 1 and 2) Group 2 - Katherine, Michelle and Jason (Tesman - Act 3 and 4) Jorgen Tesman Initial descriptions - Pg 169 “You mustn’t call Jorgen “Mr” anymore. You must say “Doctor” Although this shows audiences that he is respected socially as a Doctor, it is also implied through “anymore” that he may not always have been of this social class. Furthermore, the constant emphasis and repetition on which Ms Tesman places on the fact that Mr Tesman is now a doctor shows this may have been a major achievement for their family. “He can be anything -he can. Clever like he is” “The master - The doctor” Although Hedda is of high class society, she has married someone below her in the social hierarchy. Although not clearly stated, through the way that Tesman and his family speak of Hedda, and the way he conducts his speech and actions “He is comfortably, almost carelessly dressed in an indoor suit” audiences are able to assume that he is of a lower class compared to Hedda. “And to think you were the one that carried off Hedda Gabler! The lovely Hedda Gabler” Here Aunt Julle Implies to audiences that he has married someone above him in the social hierarchy. This is further reinforced when Aunt Julle buys a hat “So that Hedda shan’t be ashamed of me if we go out together”. Set in the 20th century, characters are placed in a male dominated society,this further emphasizes the difference in class between Mr Tesman and Hedda as he as the male is considered to have married above him. Through the way in which Mr Tesman interacts with his aunt in the opening scenes, we can see that he demonstrates a very affectionate and caring attitude towards her. “My dear Aunt Julle [Goes up and shakes her hand affectionately” Furthermore the way he inquires about his family “But I suppose there’s no improvement in Aunt Rina eh?” shows his close relationship and genuine care towards his family as he doesn’t ask a vague question but rather questions a specific and recent event. Significant Scenes Act 1 – pg 171 – from top of page until top of page 173 Tesman’s wife has control over him and his aunt, “Hedda won’t be ashamed of me” Tesman must conform to his wife’s societal expectations Tesman is aware that his wife is sought after by many men, yet he still remains foolish and unaware of his wife’s intentions. Tesman is highly academic, and his interests seem to lie more in his work that in his marital affairs, and does not gather the hint from his Aunt about having a baby. The long honeymoon and his excessive spending on his wife shows his struggle to please his high-maintenance wife. Act 1 – bottom of page 195 – You ought to prepare yourself – pg 197 exit of Brack Act 1 introduces a sense of disruption to the novel. It is revealed that Tesman is competing against an old rival for the professorship. Tesman becomes deeply concerned about his financial security. Tesman’s insecurity is expressed through stage directions, such as “clasps his hands together,” and “He flings his arms about.” His wife does not share his worries, and is unsupportive to her husband. Her stage directions “immobile in her chair” shows her cold, emotionlessness towards her husband. She states that ‘it’ll be quite a sporting event,’ almost as if this is a game to her. She uses the worlds ‘results’ and ‘expectations’ further exhibiting this idea that her only concern is in the positive outcomes of her marriage. he tries eagerly to impress her, and she is quite childish in her demands “And the saddle-horse I was to have had... “I suppose I daren’t even think of that now” - Tesman is a subserviant and loving husband. - societal codes of pride + superficiality revealed - relates to a view form the bridge Act 1 – page 197 exit of Brack – until end of Act Act 2 – pg 211 entrance of Lovberg – until our way pg 214 “the same age as Tesman” -Lovborg is the same age as Tesman. Hence this shows that he is a potential threat to Tesman, because he too is someone with the same prospects in life. “he seems a little embarrassed” -frightened Tesman tells Lovborg to “as if you were at home” -threatens Hedda and her position “No. I only intend to outshine you.” -Shows that there is a rivalry between Tesman and Lovborg -said with a hint of humor and makes Lovborg seem arrogant as he understands his power, which comes from the book. “But, good Heavens...so Aunt Julle was right after all! There...I said she would be! Hedda! Just think, Hedda...Ejlert Lovborg isn't going to stand in our way after all” -Through the multiple exclamations and the dependent nature on Aunt Julle, it portrays his character as being childlike and immature. The words “isn’t going to stand in our way after all” may be metaphorical, creating dramatic irony as Lovborg is one of the characters that causes the later chaos. Act 3 – pg 232 at top until end of 234 ● in admiration of Lovborg’s talent, yet envious of him at the same time ○ found Lovborg’s lost manuscript → doesn’t realise he has the power to do whatever he wants to the manuscript → he could have disposed of it for Lovborg is his occupational rival, but instead he wants to give it back to him → kind, truthful nature ■ “..I must go in and give him this” pg 234 ● confides in Hedda about finding the manuscript, trusts her, not knowing her intentions for the manuscript ● easily taken control of by Hedda, despite being the husband, the male authority figure → timid, meek, pushover, aware that Hedda wanted by every man → tries desperately to please her ○ Tesman. No, my dear, sweet Hedda, I swear I just daren’t do that. pg 234 ○ · Tesman. Yes give them to me! Hedda: No, no, I’ll look after them till you come back.” pg 235 Act 4 – pg 250 – I haven’t got it any more – until entrance of Thea on page 252 Caught in a state of shock and happiness ● Shocked that Hedda actually burned Lovborg’s manuscript; she committed a felony ● He’s timid and obedient, which contrasts greatly with Hedda’s impulsive (albeit selfish) and daring actions ● in of disbelief Hedda’s actions ● “Tesman [jumps up in alarm]” pg 250 ● “…do you know what it is that you’ve done, Hedda? It’s a felony… it’s misappropriation of lost property!” pg 250 ● Happy yet dubious that Hedda burned Lovborg’s manuscript for his sake ● blindly tries to fulfill Hedda’s every need despite her apparent neutral emotions towards him; he is aware that her love for him does not run deep ● not for Tesman’s sake but for own selfish reasons ● “Tesman [exclaiming, torn between doubt and happiness]” ○ “but…I never knew you loved me like that, Hedda, not in that way. Think of that!” ■ the repetition of the ellipses reflects his speechlessness and hesitation to believe that Hedda did it for him ● Easily fooled, won over → Hedda did not actually burn it for him yet his doubt is replaced by happiness that Hedda feels so strongly for him; ○ “Hedda [suppressing an almost imperceptible smile] I did it for you sake Jorgen” pg 251 ○ “Tesman [laughing in the excess of his joy]” pg 251 ○ “Oh good heavens… it is really possible! Eh!” pg 251 ● naive in a sense despite his academic excellence; all he knows is academics; naive about human nature and behavior → looks past the fact that Hedda refused to see his dying aunt because she “must be free of everything that’s ugly” pg. 235 ○ “Oh well for God’s sake then… Oh, I do so hope I’m not going to be too late, Hedda? Eh?” pg 235 ● compassionate; feels guilty for Ejlert’s loss ○ “[Looks uneasy and thoughtful again]… to think of poor Ejlert.” Act 4 pg 257 and his last line. p. 257 - Tesman - “It must be done! It shall be done! I’ll devote my life to this work!” p. 74 - Brack - “George Tesman really is a simple soul” Tesman is always the character that brings a balance to the other characters. The way he speaks is informal, casual and sometimes playful, this contrasts to how Lovborg is represented. Lovborg is reserved and speaks very formally, similar to how Hedda speaks. p. 257 - Tesman - “Well come along then. We must look at these jottings at once now.” p.257 - Tesman - “My own material will just have to wait” Tesman urges Mrs. Elvsted to read and analyse the sheets of paper. He says to Hedda that he will devote all his time to analysing these sheets instead of working on his own material. This says something about how Tesman thinks and how Brack previously said that Tesman has a “simple soul”.