AP Psychology 10/24/13 Warm-up • Get out FRQ on Lafawnduh from last class. • Eat oreos. • • • FRQ 2 Rubric Piaget proposed cognitive stages . His stage of concrete operations takes place from a ges seven to eleven. Children have developed the capacity to understand logical princ iples that apply to concrete external objects. Lafawnduh may be able to appreciate th at some properties of an object remain the same, despite changes in appearance (con servation). She may be able to sort objects into categories and to appreciate the pers pective of another viewer. She may also be able to think about two concepts at the sa me time. According to Piaget's theory, Lafawnduh may not be able to think logically a bout abstractions. (1 point – stage; 1 point – one of these details) Erikson's theory proposes that psychosocial development occurs in eight stages, each of which focuses on one issue or crisis that is especially important at that particular ti me of life. The industry vs. inferiority stage occurs from age six through puberty. Child ren focus on acquiring basic social and intellectual skills during this period. Lafawndu h will either develop a sense of industry and curiosity and be eager to learn, or she wi ll feel inferior and lose interest in the tasks before her. (1 point – stage; 1 point – meaning) Kohlberg's theory is concerned with the development of moral reasoning. He propose d that there are three stages of development in people's capacity to consider morals and ethics. Lafawnduh is in the conventional level. Lafawnduh may base her moral ju dgments on caring for others and upholding laws and social rules simplify because th ey exist. (1 point – stage; 1 point – meaning) Sensation!! • Sensation is… • Perception is… • What is the relationship between sensation & perception? Bottom-up Processing • Processing of current stimulation influences what is perceived. • No prior expectations or beliefs influence the translation of your sensation into perception. Top-down Processing • Processing that is influenced by background knowledge, learning, and expectations. Processing… http://faculty.washington.edu/jmiyamot/p355/l ec02-2.p355.w13.pdf Processing Backwards Masking http://www.stairwaytoheavenbackwards.com/ Psychophysics • • • • • • Absolute Thresholds Signal detection theory Subliminal stimuli Priming Difference Thresholds (or jnd) & Weber’s law Cocktail Party Effect Sensory Adaptation • Give an example of sensory adaptation. • When the eyes’ adaptation to sensory input is halted, what do the eyes sense? Vision • What is transduction? • What is color? Define using hue (wavelength) and intensity (amplitude). Draw the eye! • Label the following: cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina, rods, cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve, blind spot, & fovea. • Explain the purpose of each term. • Explain underneath how accommodation, nearsightedness, and farsightedness relate to physical changes in the eye. The eye… • Explain how visual information is transmitted from the external world to your visual cortex. Feature Detectors • What are feature detectors? • How are they specialized? Processing • What is the difference between serial and parallel processing? When does a human do both? • How does parallel processing explain a patient who now suffers from blindsight correctly guessing if sticks in their blind field of vision are vertical or horizontal? Colors! • Why do things have “color?” • What does the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory state? • What is the difference between subractive and additive color mixing? Which applies to paints and which applies to lights? Why? • How does Ewald Hering’s theory of afterimages explain opponent-process theory? • What is color constancy? Limits of color constancy… Limits of color constancy… • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Optical_illusi on_greysquares.gif Essential Question • Write a solid paragraph explaining how someone senses another person. • Minimum terms to use: sensation/transduction, bottom-up or topdown processing, lens, cones/rods, and optic nerve. Homework • Finish reading Chapter 5! • WORK ON GROUP PRESENTATIONS FOR MONDAY! • STUDY FOR TEST ON WEDNESDAY!