Chapter 5: Theories of Psychological Development PART TWO: THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT MS V PARSONS VCE UNIT 1 PSYCHOLOGY 2012 Why so many theories? This year we will cover the following areas of development: Perceptual Gibson Emotional Bowlby, Ainsworth & Harlow Perceptual – Gibson Psychological Development Emotional – Bowlby, Ainsworth, Harlow Cognitive - Piaget Moral -Kohlberg Psychosocial – Erikson Cognitive Piaget Psychosocial Erikson Moral Kohlberg Emotional Development: Romanian Orphans http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtQ4sPgNoEY How important is the psychological bond ..or ATTACHMENT..between infants and their caregivers in emotional development ? Definition of Attachment An enduring emotional tie to a special person, characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain closeness, especially during times of stress. Roots of Attachment Theory • John Bowlby applied ethology (the study of behaviour) to infants • Infant’s innate behaviors are evolved responses which promote survival John Bowlby, British psychiatrist (19071990) Importance of Attachment • Implications for infant's sense of security • Affects internal working model • Freud, Erikson, Behaviorists described its impact on development Bowlby’s 4 Key Characteristics of Attachment Proximity Maintenance- desire to be near the caregiver. Safe Haven- the ability to be able to return to the caregiver when scared. Secure Base- from which infant can explore surrounding environment. Separation distress- anxiety when caregiver leaves Bowlby’s Four Stages of Attachment Pre attachment phase • Birth - 6 weeks • Baby’s innate signals attract caregiver • Caregivers remain close by when the baby responds positively Attachment in the Making • 6 wks to 6-8 months • Develops a sense of trust that caregiver will respond when signaled • Infants respond more positively to familiar caregiver • Babies don't protest when separated from parent Clear-cut Attachment • 6-8 months to 18-24 months • Babies display separation anxiety • Babies protest when parent leaves Formation of Reciprocal Relationship • 18 mo - 2yrs • Toddlers increase their understanding of symbols and language improves • Toddlers understand that parents will return Factors which Affect Attachment • Opportunity for attachment • Quality of caregiving • respond promptly and consistently • interactional synchrony – the sensitively tuned “emotional dance” • Infant characteristics • infant's temperament, special needs, prematurity, or illnesses More Factors which Affect Attachment • Family circumstances • Stress can undermine attachment • Parents’ internal working models • Parents’ own attachment experiences • Parents’ ability to accept their past Measuring the Quality of Attachment • Mary Ainsworth researched • Designed the “strange situation” • A lab experiment with 8 different episodes of separation and reunion • Attached infant will: • Use mother as a secure base • Be soothed by the mother during the reunion Mary Ainsworth, American Psycholgist (1913-199) Secure attachment http://www.youtube.com/ • Uses caregiver as a secure base • May show distress at separation, but the baby can be soothed at reunion • 60-65% of Australian children watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU Insecure-Avoidant Attachment • Unresponsive to parent when she is present • Not distressed by parting • Avoids or slow to greet parent on return • 20% of Australian children Insecure-Resistant Attachment • Infants remain close to parents and not eager to explore • Distressed by separation • During reunion, infants are both clingy and resistant • 12% of Australian children Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment • No coherent strategy for handling separations or reunions • Baby looks dazed and confused • 5-10% of Australian children How do the Different Perspectives view Attachment Harlow’s Attachment Experiment http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/2097 8/ Harlow’s Experiments in Monkeys Nonhuman primates can offer tremendous insights into human development. Of all animals, apes and monkey are the most closely related to humans behaviorally, anatomically, and physiologically. Rhesus monkeys share over 90% of their genes with those of humans. Harry Harlow, American Psychologist (19051981) Harlow discovered that baby monkeys deprived of their mothers (left) would transfer their affections to a cloth surrogate. When they needed to eat, they would scamper over to a milk-bearing wire mother, but then quickly return to cuddle with the softer surrogate. Harry Harlow 1905-1981 RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT All the rhesus monkeys raised in isolation were Fearful Easily frightened Did not mate Those artificially inseminated became abusive mothers Harry Harlow 1905-1981 Harlow used this bear for the fear test. When Harlow put this in the cage with the isolated monkeys, they were afraid. Harry Harlow 1905-1981 The typical response in the fear test was to cling to the cloth mother. (not the wire mother with the food) Implications For The Human Socialization Process Parental contact is absolutely critical to infants’ psychosocial well-being. Critical = absolutely necessary….won’t happen without it. Following WW II, psychologists coined the term “anaclitic depression” to describe the clinical response of human infants to prolonged maternal separation.