Chapter 13: A Growing Sense of Nationhood. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - Kids Pages - Star Spangled Banner Answer the 2 questions located on page 89 of your workbook. The American Landscape in the Early 1800s Two out of every three American s still lived within 50 miles of the Atlantic. Fewer than one in ten lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. (round tipped, forested mountains) Beyond the mountains the land flattened out, but was covered by dense woods. Travel was slow because of the geography. Lots of people developed certain lifestyle differences. 1)Yankees of the Northeast: seen as enterprising, thrifty, and money hungry. 2)Plantation owners of the South: see as gracious and cultured and (in the eyes of the yankees) LAZY. 3)Frontiersmen who looked for fortune in the West: rugged, hard, and crude. Nationalism After the war of 1812 they rebuilt the White House and the Capitol. Uncle Sam: name came from Sam Wilson, a NY butcher who provided meat to soldiers. Others think it came from the initials U.S. and was a nickname for the government. Identity: White American men saw themselves as devoted to individualism and equality. They believed they were better than Europeans. Appalachians The Era of Good Feelings What was the Era of Good Feelings? The time period that James Monroe was in office. He served 8 years. During his presidency there was a great sense of national pride and unity. Two things contributed to this feeling: 1)Economic Nationalism- federal government build national economy 2)Judicial Nationalism- court decisions strengthened the role of Court. Four men very influential with either Economic or Judicial Nationalism. 1) Henry Clay: tall, slender man. Eloquent speaker, full of charm, and intelligence. Driven by ambition. Wanted to be president. Believed that America’s future was Capitalism (economic system that individuals and companies produce and distribute goods, farms included). He wanted high tariffs, and federal spending on transportation. Also believed in a National Bank. 2) John C. Calhoun: 6’2” tall, black hair, supported the National Bank. Also wanted a permanent road system, and a protective tariff (for companies). Was for states’ rights and protected slavery in the South. 3) Daniel Webster: from Massachusetts, “Black Dan” for his dark eyebrows, served in both the Senate and HOReps. Opposed War of 1812, but after was very supportive of all of Clay’s ideas for America. 4) John Marshall: Supreme Court’s Chief Justice. Appointed by John Adams. Marshall wrote some of the most important decisions in American History. His decisions had two major impacts. **strengthened the role of the Court, as well as, power over the states **his rulings encouraged the growth of capitalism. John C. Calhoun John Marshall Henry Clay Daniel Webster Early American Art The development of an American identity. American Art Most early American art consisted of portraits and historical scenes that were American subjects but European style. Romantic Art: 18th Century European movement that was concerned with portraying FEELINGS rather than an image. American Romantic art (including the Hudson River School) contained 5 elements: 1. Use of Light 2. Glorification of nature 3. Heroism 4. Supernatural / religious themes 5. Emotion Hudson River School • Soon artists perceived that the New World offered subjects unique to itself; in this case the westward expansion of settlement brought the transcendent beauty of frontier landscapes to painters' attention. • The Hudson River School of paintings was a type of ROMANTIC art that reflected three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration, and settlement. The paintings also depict the American landscape as a pastoal setting, where human beings and nature coexist peacefully. Hudson River School landscapes are characterized by their realistic, detailed, and sometimes idealized portrayal of nature. John James Audobon: painted 435 detailed portraits of birds. Made accurate, realistic studies of the species he observed in the fields and woods. Nobody would publish his book of birds in America, so he found a publish in England. The Birds of America made him internationally famous. George Catlin: Noticed that Native American traditions were fading. He observed them and drew pictures of them. He captured their villages, hunts and rituals in paintings with rich color. Faith in Art The American Portrait Folk Art • Art made by ordinary people, not artists. • Very simple and often colorful. • Men carved weathervanes, women made quilts. • Often people created signs, murals, and images of national symbols like the flag. Folk Art Examples Early American Music Spirituals: Slaves combined hymns of white churchgoers with African musical styles. Folk songs: rowdy songs with violin, drum, and banjo (an African American invention) Patriotic Anthems: songs about America Minstrel Songs: White composers that wrote songs inspired by black slaves, that honored black music by mimicking it. However, when they performed it they made fun of African Americans by painting their faces black and wearing raggedy clothes. Cotillion/Square dancing music: groups of four danced together elegantly with coordinated movements. With square dancing the caller would call out the moves for the dancers. Early American Literature Like the painters of the Hudson River School, writers began to use American subjects and settings. Famous Writers: Washington Irving: used German folklore, but based it in upstate New York. Stories were a hit. “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”. James Fenimore Cooper: wrote about adventures of frontiersmen exploring the wilderness. He also wrote about Native Americans. He wrote the books The Pioneers and The Last of the Mohicans. Davy Crockett: wrote about his real life experiences as a frontiersman. He wrote about his life as a hunter, scout, soldier, and explorer. Wrote his own autobiography in volumes. The Crockett Almanac. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: wrote poetry about Native Americans and patriotic themes. The Song of Hiawatha and “Paul Revere’s Ride”.