Chapter 13: A Growing Sense of
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Answer the 2 questions located on page 89 of your workbook.
The American Landscape in the Early 1800s
Two out of every three American s still lived within 50 miles of the Atlantic.
Fewer than one in ten lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. (round tipped,
forested mountains)
Beyond the mountains the land flattened out, but was covered by dense woods.
Travel was slow because of the geography. Lots of people developed certain
lifestyle differences.
1)Yankees of the Northeast: seen as enterprising, thrifty, and money hungry.
2)Plantation owners of the South: see as gracious and cultured and
(in the eyes of the yankees) LAZY.
3)Frontiersmen who looked for fortune in the West: rugged, hard, and crude.
After the war of 1812 they rebuilt the White House and the Capitol.
Uncle Sam: name came from Sam Wilson, a NY butcher who provided meat
to soldiers. Others think it came from the initials U.S. and was a nickname
for the government.
Identity: White American men saw themselves as devoted to individualism
and equality. They believed they were better than Europeans.
The Era of Good Feelings
What was the Era of Good Feelings?
The time period that James Monroe was in office. He served 8 years.
During his presidency there was a great sense of national pride and unity.
Two things contributed to this feeling:
1)Economic Nationalism- federal government build national economy
2)Judicial Nationalism- court decisions strengthened the role of
Four men very influential with either Economic or Judicial Nationalism.
1) Henry Clay: tall, slender man. Eloquent speaker, full of charm, and
intelligence. Driven by ambition. Wanted to be president. Believed that
America’s future was Capitalism (economic system that individuals and
companies produce and distribute goods, farms included). He wanted high
tariffs, and federal spending on transportation. Also believed in a National
2) John C. Calhoun: 6’2” tall, black hair, supported the National Bank. Also
wanted a permanent road system, and a protective tariff (for companies). Was
for states’ rights and protected slavery in the South.
3) Daniel Webster: from Massachusetts, “Black Dan” for his dark eyebrows,
served in both the Senate and HOReps. Opposed War of 1812, but after was
very supportive of all of Clay’s ideas for America.
4) John Marshall: Supreme Court’s Chief Justice. Appointed by John Adams.
Marshall wrote some of the most important decisions in American History. His
decisions had two major impacts.
**strengthened the role of the Court, as well as, power over the states
**his rulings encouraged the growth of capitalism.
John C. Calhoun
John Marshall
Henry Clay
Daniel Webster
Early American Art
The development of an
American identity.
American Art
Most early American art consisted of
portraits and historical scenes that were
American subjects but European style.
Romantic Art: 18th Century European movement that was
concerned with portraying FEELINGS rather than an image.
American Romantic art (including the Hudson River School)
contained 5 elements:
1. Use of Light
2. Glorification of nature
3. Heroism
4. Supernatural / religious themes
5. Emotion
Hudson River School
• Soon artists perceived that the New World offered
subjects unique to itself; in this case the westward
expansion of settlement brought the transcendent
beauty of frontier landscapes to painters' attention.
• The Hudson River School of paintings was a type of
ROMANTIC art that reflected three themes of
America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration,
and settlement. The paintings also depict the
American landscape as a pastoal setting, where
human beings and nature coexist peacefully. Hudson
River School landscapes are characterized by their
realistic, detailed, and sometimes idealized portrayal
of nature.
John James Audobon: painted 435 detailed portraits of birds. Made
accurate, realistic studies of the species he observed in the fields and
Nobody would publish his book of birds in America, so he found
a publish in England. The Birds of America made him internationally
George Catlin: Noticed that Native American traditions were fading. He
observed them and drew pictures of them. He captured their villages, hunts
and rituals in paintings with rich color.
Faith in Art
The American Portrait
Folk Art
• Art made by ordinary people, not artists.
• Very simple and often colorful.
• Men carved weathervanes, women made
• Often people created signs, murals, and
images of national symbols like the flag.
Folk Art Examples
Early American Music
Spirituals: Slaves combined hymns of white churchgoers with African musical styles.
Folk songs: rowdy songs with violin, drum, and banjo (an African American invention)
Patriotic Anthems: songs about America
Minstrel Songs: White composers that wrote songs inspired by black slaves, that
honored black music by mimicking it. However, when they performed it they made
fun of African Americans by painting their faces black and wearing raggedy clothes.
Cotillion/Square dancing music: groups of four danced together elegantly with
coordinated movements. With square dancing the caller would call out the moves
for the dancers.
Early American Literature
Like the painters of the Hudson River School, writers began to use American
subjects and settings.
Famous Writers:
Washington Irving: used German folklore, but based it in upstate
New York. Stories were a hit. “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of
Sleepy Hollow”.
James Fenimore Cooper: wrote about adventures of frontiersmen
exploring the wilderness. He also wrote about Native Americans. He
wrote the books The Pioneers and The Last of the Mohicans.
Davy Crockett: wrote about his real life experiences as a frontiersman.
He wrote about his life as a hunter, scout, soldier, and explorer. Wrote
his own autobiography in volumes. The Crockett Almanac.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: wrote poetry about Native Americans and
patriotic themes. The Song of Hiawatha and “Paul Revere’s Ride”.