Art I Art Talk, chapter 5:

The Elements of Art:
Shape, Form, Space
1
Line
One Dimensional
(1 D)
length
Shape
Two
Dimensional
(2 D)
length
and
height
Form
Three
Dimensional
(3 D)
length,
height,
and
width
2
Shape
An area
that can be measured
in two dimensions:
length and width.
3
Geometric
Shapes
Shapes that can be described
using a mathematical formula.
Wassily Kandinsky, Geflecht von Oben
(Network from Above) 1927
4
Organic
(Free-Form)
Shapes
Shapes
derived
from nature.
Paul Klee,
Landscape with
Yellow Birds
5
Form
Objects that can be
measured in three
dimensions:
length,
width
and
height.
6
Geometric Forms
Barbara Hepworth, Family of Man, 1970
7
Organic Forms
Henry Moore,
Family Group, 1950
8
Space
The area AROUND an object
and the area WITHIN an object.
9
Positive Space
The objects and shapes in an artwork.
10
Negative Space
The empty space
around objects
in an artwork.
1963 - Sky Above Clouds III, by Georgia O’Keeffe
11
Point of View
Angle at which
a viewer
perceives an object.
12
The use of
light and dark values
to give the illusion
13
of form.
Highlight
Areas of white
in an artwork
which show
where light reflects the most.
14
Perspective
Raphael, School of Athens, 1511
A visual system that
creates
the illusion of depth.
15
Perspective Techniques
Overlapping
Placing one object
in front of another.
The fullest shape
appears to be
closest to the viewer.
16
Perspective Techniques
Size
Making some objects
larger than others.
The largest objects
appear closest
to the viewer.
17
Perspective Techniques
Placement
Putting some objects
lower in the picture
than others.
The lowest objects
appear closest
to the viewer.
18
Perspective Techniques
Detail
Rendering objects
with intricate contours
and decorations.
Objects with
the most details
appear closest.
19
Perspective Techniques
Atmospheric Perspective
The affects of light and moisture in the atmosphere.