The Marketing Mix (The 4 P's of Marketing) Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories: Place Product The 4 P’s of Marketing Promotion Price The goal is to make decisions that center the four P's on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive response. Product The term "product" refers to tangible, physical products as well as services. Here are some examples of the product decisions to be made: Brand name Functionality Styling Quality Safety Packaging Repairs and Support Warranty Accessories and services Price The process of determining what to charge for the product or service, as well as taking into consideration what your consumers are willing to pay for. Look at variable such as production costs/expenses, competition, etc. Some examples of pricing decisions to be made include: Pricing strategy (skim, penetration, etc.) Suggested retail price Volume discounts and wholesale pricing Cash and early payment discounts Seasonal pricing Bundling Price flexibility Price discrimination Place (Distribution) Distribution is about getting the products to the customer, where are your products going to be sold or available. Products must be easily found by consumers, will your product be sold all year long or just seasonally? Some examples of distribution decisions include: Distribution channels Market coverage (inclusive, selective, or exclusive distribution) Specific channel members Inventory management Warehousing Distribution centers Order processing Transportation Promotion Promotion represents the various aspects of marketing communication that is, marketing your product to generate consumer awareness of information like what it is and where it can be found. Deciding on a message to relay to consumers, and advertising with the goal of creating a positive response. Marketing communication decisions include: Promotional strategy (push, pull, etc.) Advertising Personal selling & sales force Sales promotions Public relations & publicity Marketing communications budget The 2 C’s of Marketing Customers Competition By understanding who we are selling to and who we’re competing against, we are more likely to be successful in marketing our product.