Poetry Introduction and Vocabulary Forms of Poetry: Lyric Poem Sonnet Free Verse Haiku Catalog Poem Ballad Lyric Poem: Expresses a speaker’s emotions or thoughts. It does not tell a story. Usually short and focused on one single, strong emotion. A Blessing By: James Wright Just off the highway to Rochester, Minnesota, Twilight bounds softly forth on the grass, And the eyes of those two Indian ponies Darken with kindness. They have come gladly out of the willows To welcome my friend and me. We step over barbed wire into the pasture Where they have been grazing all day, alone. They ripple tensely, they can hardly contain their happiness That we have come. They bow shyly as wet swans. They love each other. There is no loneliness like theirs. At home once more, They begin munching the young tufts of spring in the darkness. I would like to hold the slenderer one in my arms, For she has walked over to me And nuzzled my left hand. She is black and white, Her mane falls wild on her forehead, And the light breeze moves me to caress her long ear, That is delicate as the skin over a girl's wrist. Suddenly I realize That if I stepped out of my body I would break Into blossom. Sonnet: A fourteen line lyric poem. Usually written in iambic pentameter and have a regular rhyme scheme. Once by the Pacific By: Robert Frost The shattered water made a misty din. Great waves looked over others coming in, And thought of doing something to the shore That water never did to land before. The clouds were low and hairy in the skies, Like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes. You could not tell, and yet it looked as if The shore was lucky in being backed by cliff, The cliff in being backed by continent; It looked as if a night of dark intent Was coming, and not only a night, an age. Someone had better be prepared for rage. There would be more than ocean-water broken Before God’s last Put out the Light was spoken. Free Verse: Poetry that doesn’t have a regular meter or rhyming scheme. Free verse tries to capture the rhythm of ordinary speech. in Just – By: E.E. Cummings in Justspring when the world is mudluscious the little lame balloonman whistles far and wee and eddieandbill come running from marbles and piracies and it’s spring when the world is puddle-wonderful the queer old balloonman whistles far and wee and bettyandisabel come dancing from hop-scotch and jump-rope and it’s spring and the balloon Man far and wee goat footed whistles Haiku: A three line poem with seventeen syllables. Lines 1 and 3 have five syllables each, and line 2 has seven syllables. Usually contrast two images from nature or daily life. Untitled By: Miura Chora Get out of my road and allow me to plant these bamboos, Mr. Toad. Catalog Poem: The Car By: Raymond Carver The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The The car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car car with a cracked windshield that threw a rod without brakes with a faulty U-joint with a hole in its radiator I picked peaches for with a cracked block with no reverse gear I traded for a bicycle with steering problems with no back seat with a torn front seat that burned oil with rotten hoses that left the restaurant without paying with bald tires with no heater or defroster with it’s front end out of alignment the child threw up in I threw up in with the broken water pump whose timing gear was shot with a blown head gasket I left on the side of the road that leaked carbon dioxide The car with a sticky carburetor The car that hit the dog and kept going The car with a hole in its muffler The car with no muffler The car my daughter wrecked The car with corroded battery cables The car bought with a bad check Car of my sleepless nights The car with a stuck thermostat The car whose engine caught fire The car with no headlights The car with a broken fan belt The car with wipers that wouldn’t work The car I gave away The car with transmission trouble The car I washed my hands of The car I struck with a hammer The car with payments that couldn’t be met The repossessed car The car whose clutch pin broke The car waiting on the back lot Car of my dreams My car. Presents a list of many different images. Image is repeated with different descriptions over and over throughout the poem. Perfect Two Ballad: A song that tells a story. Use a steady rhythm, strong rhymes, and repetition of a refrain. You You You You can can can can be be be be You can be You can be You can be Or you can the the the the peanut butter to my jelly butterflies I feel in my belly captain and I can be your first mate chills that I feel on our first date the hero and I can be your side kick the tear that I cry if we ever split the rain from the cloud when it's stormin‘ be the sun when it shines in the mornin' Don't know if I could ever be Without you cause boy you complete me And in time I know that we'll both see That we're all we need Cause you're the apple to my pie You're the straw to my berry You're the smoke to my high And you're the one I wanna marry Cause your the one for me (for me) And I'm the one for you (for you) You take the both of us (of us) And we're the perfect two You You You You can can can can be be be be the the the the prince and I can be your princess sweet tooth and I can be the dentist shoes and I can be the laces heart that I spill on the pages Don't know if I could ever be Without you cause boy you complete me And in time I know that we'll both see That we're all we need Imagery: Image: A word or phrase that appeals to one more of the five senses. Sensory Detail: Elements that help the reader imagine how something looks, sounds, smells, feels, or tastes. Figurative Language: Simile: Metaphors: Two unlike things are compared using a word such as: like, as, than, or resembles. A comparison of two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another. Example: Simile: “You eat like a pig.” Metaphor: “You are a pig.” Metaphor Continued: Direct Metaphor: Directly compares two things by using a verb like are. Example: “The days are nouns: touch them The hands are churches that worship the world.” Indirect Metaphor: Implies or suggests a comparison between two things rather than stating it directly. Example: “Golden Baked Skin” “Shut your trap” Figurative Language Continued: Personification: A type of metaphor in which human qualities are given to something that is not human (an object, animal, force of nature, or idea). Rhyme: The repetition of a stressed vowel sound and any sounds that follow it in words that are close together. End Rhymes: Rhymes in poetry that occur at the ends of lines. Internal Rhymes: Rhymes in poetry that occur when at least one rhymed word falls within a line. Rhyme Scheme: A regular pattern of end rhymes. Approximate Rhyme: Repeat some sounds, but are not exact echoes. Marking a Rhyme Scheme: ABAB ABBA Rhythm: A musical quality based on repetition. When you talk about the beat you hear when you read a poem, you are describing it’s rhythm. Meter: A common form of rhythm. A regular pattern of stressed (`) and unstressed (U) syllables in the lines of a poem. Foot: Usually consists of one stressed and one unstressed syllable. Iamb: a foot that has one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Example: Barack Obama This line is written in iambic pentameter and has five iambs: “But soft! / What light/ through yon / der win / dow breaks?” Sound Devices: Onomatopoeia: Words that sound like what they mean. EXAMPLE: Buzz, hiss, boom, bang. Alliteration: Repeating the same consonant sound in several words. EXAMPLE: Fragrant flowers, dog days, cool as a cucumber. Assonance: Repeating the same vowel sounds in several words. EXAMPLE: Quick fix, around town. Weekend Homework: Find a poem that you like. Label the poem type. Mark the rhyme scheme (if there is one) Bring a copy of the poem to class Monday. If you don’t bring a copy of your poem, then you will have a separate writing assignment to complete while the rest of the class does a fun activity!