PowerPoint Presentation - Campbell County Schools

Forging the National Economy,
Chapter 14
Manifest Destiny
• God given mission to spread civilization by conquest
to the entire western hemisphere
▫ no matter who it harmed
Technological innovations
Democracy must continue to grow in order to survive
Desire to expand benefits of American civilization
Southerners were anxious to acquire new lands
▫ Why?
• Pacific ports
• Texas and Great Britain?
Agricultural Boom
• Post war of 1812 farm prices high
• Move west for better farm land
▫ Demand in Europe for corn and
• Urbanization builds dependence
on commercial farms
• Mississippi River natural highway
from midwest to Gulf
• Cotton Gin
▫ 1793, Eli Whitney from 1 slave
cleaning 1 pound per day to 50
pounds per hour
▫ Large demand in Europe for
cotton cloth
▫ 1815 - MS and AL half nation’s
cotton production
▫ By 1836 cotton 2/3 of all US
 “King Cotton”
Land Policy
• Early preference for orderly
settlement of Public Domain
▫ Ordinance of 1785 - orderly
procedures for survey and sales
▫ Federalists wanted to slow
westward movement (eroded
their northeastern powerbase)
• Federalists encouraged sales to
▫ Republicans (Jefferson) reduced
minimum purchase amount from
640 acres (a section) which most
farmers couldn’t afford to 320 in
1800, @ $2/acre
▫ 160 acres in 1804 @ $1.64/acre
▫ 80 acres in 1820, 40 acres in 1832
@ $1.25/acre
Land Boom (cont.)
• Speculators
bought sections, subdivided as small as 40 acres
could clear only 10 to 12 acres annually anyway
US Bank recharter spurred bank note production
Plethora of speculation 1815-1819
• 1819 Panic crashed the economy
• Squatters
▫ settled on unimproved land regardless of ownership
▫ generally gained right of “preemption” (allowed to purchase
and register land at minimum $ that they had settled and
▫ Had to forgo subsistence crops to pay off debts
▫ forced to produce cash crops to make money, exhausted land,
moved on
Panic of 1819
• Land boom collapsed
▫ State banks poor management
caused much of it
▫ Proliferation of bank notes,
farmers borrowed heavily to buy
more land
• US Bank insisted on specie instead
of paper to repay loans to state
• Land prices from $69/acre to
▫ Farm market prices bottomed
▫ Farmers couldn’t repay loans,
went bust
• Horribly bad press for BUS,
(Jackson lost money in the crash
Why was it difficult for the Industrial
Revolution to come to America?
• people wanted to be farmers,
plenty of land
• had raw materials but not
• a lot of people had technological
ingenuity, but very little
specialized knowledge
• most people didn't have money or
leisure to worry about luxuries
• England wanted to prevent
industrialization in America
• negative attitude about impact of
factories on society
• people invested their money in
Jefferson didn’t think factories were a
good idea, though he liked gadgets
• The new nation was to be a republic, which required a
balance of power, liberty, and virtue
• Who makes a good voter? a farmer--independent,
▫ “ You can't have republic without a virtuous citizenry.” Jefferson
• The workers in British factory cities were clearly
• The trade embargo by the British in 1807 that led
eventually to the war of 1812 convinced Jefferson to
change his mind
• The new nation couldn't afford to be dependent on
England for imported goods
Equality and Inequality
• Widening rich-poor gap in early
▫ Small % control majority of wealth
• Rich
▫ Exhibit conspicuous consumption,
flaunt wealth
▫ Live among peers, isolated from
▫ Many Attempt to look ordinary in
public, keep appearances of
▫ paying minimal wages
 inadequate for male workers to
provide sufficiently from factory
work for family
• Poor
▫ Close to poverty
▫ More affected by panics - laid off,
wages reduced
▫ Paupers (aged, sick) considered the
“deserving” poor
▫ Drunks, loafers considered the
“undeserving” poor
• Numerous, increasing in
number as century progressed
• Irish poorest, evicted by
English landlords, many came
to US
▫ most canal diggers on Erie
were Irish
• Five Points district in NYC
horrible slum, predominately
Irish (“Gangs of New York”)
• Catholic as well as poor,
double whammy for the Irish
• Widely discriminated against
(“dogs and Irish keep off the
grass”, “Help wanted Irish
need not apply”)
Free Blacks in the North
• Bottom of non slave social scale
• Many discriminative laws in North
• Most lost vote between 1800-1850,
or had restrictions which didn’t
apply to whites
• Segregation widely practiced in
schools, hospitals, etc
▫ Barred from many municipal
facilities open to whites
▫ Forced into lowest paying jobs
▫ Paid less than whites for same
work in most cases
• Churches
▫ Blacks form own churches
▫ African Methodist Episcopal
(A.M.E.) Founded 1816, in
Philadelphia by Richard Allen
(first A.M.E. bishop)
Changing Social Relationships
• Principal motives
▫ questioning authority
▫ more than any other world culture
• Notion of women’s “separate sphere” in
the home
▫ no social rights to speak of outside
▫ more authority inside home, family
• Attacking the professions
▫ decrease in respect for educated
professionals among middle, lower
▫ value of training, degrees minimized
by many
• Value of the “self made” man
• Made ministers more transient, subject
to dismissal by congregations
• Frontier respected authority little, titles
assumed by anyone who cared to,
“judge”, “colonel”, “squire”
Family Authority Questioned
More choice of spouses by women
Working outside home by choice
Longer engagements
Women remained single rather than
forfeit independence
• Wives and husbands
▫ Separate spheres
▫ mothers expected to be the experts in
child rearing
▫ father provider role unchanged, mother
role increased in scope
▫ Idealized home, provider father, expert
child rearing mother in a safe haven
away from trials and evils
• Women’s issues
▫ birthrate gradually decrease - farming
becomes less prevalent in northeast
• Various forms of pregnancy prevention,
including unnamed abortions in many
• Separate spheres seen by many (mostly
men) as an alternate to real equality of