Animal Kingdom • Heterotrophs • Multicellular and eukaryotic with no cell walls • Invertebrates – 95% of all animals – No backbone or vertebral column Vertebrates • 5% of all animals • Have a backbone • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals What Animals Do To Survive Feeding – Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores – Filter feeders – Symbiotic relationships Respiration – Diffusion vs. organ system to respire Circulation – Diffusion vs. circulatory system Excretion – Pumps water out of body vs. organs (kidneys) Response – Arrangement of nerve cells Movement – Sessile vs. motile – Muscles Reproduction – Asexual vs. sexual Trends in Animal Evolution • Cell specialization and levels of organization • Cellstissuesorgansorgan systems • Body symmetry: arrangement of body structures – Radial: body divided into equal halves – Bilateral: body divided into equal two halves (left and right sides) • Cephalization: sense organs and nerve cells at front end of body • • • • • Body cavity: fluid-filled space b/w the digestive tract and body wall Where you find internal organs Acoelomate: no body cavity – Digestive tract found throughout the body Pseudocoelomate: space develops b/w body cavity layers – 1-way digestive tract Coelomate: completely surrounded fluid-filled space Phylum Porifera • • • • • Means “pore-bearers” Tiny openings (pores) all over body Sessile (do not move) Simplest type of animal Has spicules: spike-shaped structure made of calcium • Filter feeders • Ex: sponges Phylum Coelenterates (Cnidaria) • Means “hollow gut” • Soft bodied, carnivorous • Have stinging tentacles around mouth – Stinging cells inside tentacles • Ex: hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, coral Phylum Platyhelminthes • • • • Flatworms (flat body) 3 embryonic germ layers Acoelomates (no fluid-filled body cavity) Ex: tapeworms, Planaria, flukes Phylum Nematoda • • • • • Roundworms Parasitic, free-living Unsegmented Pseudocoelom (false coelom) Digestive tract with 2 openings (mouth and anus) • Ex: Ascaris, hookworm, Trichenella, Filaria Guinea Worm Phylum Annelida • • • • • Segmented worms Body has a lot of segments Has true coelom Tube within a tube digestive tract Ex: earthworms, leeches, polychetes Phylum Mollusca • Means soft-bodied • Have internal or external shell • Foot, mantle, shell, visceral mass Univalves • 1 shell • Ex: snails, conchs, slugs Bivalves • 2 shells held together by powerful muscles • Ex: clams, oysters, mussels, scallops Cephalopods • Means “head-foot” • Ex: octopus, squid, nautilus, cuttlefish Phylum Arthropoda • • • • Segmented body Tough exoskeleton (made of chitin) Means “jointed-leg” Undergo molting and metamorphosis Arachnids • 2 body segments • 8 legs • Ex: spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites Crustaceans • Live only in water • Chewing mouthparts called mandibles • Ex: crayfish, lobster, crabs, shrimp Insects • 3 body segments –Head, thorax, abdomen • 6 legs • Ex: flies, bees, grasshopper Myriapods • A lot of legs • Ex: centipedes, millipedes Phylum Echinodermata • • • • • Means “spiny skin” Internal skeleton Water vascular system Tube feet (suction-cup like structures) Ex: sea urchins, starfish, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, brittle stars Ch. 26-34 Review #1 1. Invertebrates that have no coelom lack a a. Heart b. Body cavity c. digestive tract d. mouth 2. Invertebrates with mirror-image left and right sides have ___. a. bilateral symmetry c. unilateral symmetry b. bifunctional symmetry d. radial symmetry 3. Describe the general characteristics of the animal kingdom: a. Prokaryotic or eukaryotic? b. Autotrophs or heterotrophs? c. Uni- or multicellular? d. Have a cell wall? Fish • • • • • • • • • Body Temperature: cold-blooded (ectotherm) Fertilization: external Body covering: scales Limbs: fins Respiration: gills Method of reproduction: lay eggs in water Aquatic animals Streamline shape 2-chambered heart Jawless Fish • Jawless (Agnatha): lampreys, hagfish Cartilaginous Fish • Cartilaginous (Chondrichthyes): sharks, skates, rays Bony Fish • Bony (Osteichthyes): lobe-finned, lungfish, ray-finned Amphibians • Body Temperature: cold-blooded (ectotherm) • Fertilization: external • Body covering: smooth, moist skin • Limbs: 4 webbed feet) • Respiration: lungs and skin • Method of reproduction: lay eggs in water • 3-chambered heart • Goes through metamorphosis (tadpole frog) • Ex: Caecilians, frogs, salamanders, newts, mudpuppies Reptiles • Body Temperature: cold-blooded (ectotherm) • Fertilization: internal • Body covering: dry, scaly skin • Limbs: 4 (feet with claws) • Respiration: lungs • Method of reproduction: lay eggs on land • • • • Terrestrial 3-chambered heart Hard-shelled eggs (amniotic eggs) Ex: turtles, snakes, crocodiles, alligators, tuatara Birds • Body Temperature: warm-blooded (endotherm) • Fertilization: internal • Body covering: feathers • Limbs: 4 (2 wings, 2 legs) • Respiration: lungs • Method of reproduction: lay eggs on land • • • • • 4-chambered heart Hollow bones (makes lightweight) Toothless beak Amniote egg Ex: swimming, raptors, perching, flightless, wading Mammals • • • • • • Body Temperature: warm-blooded (endotherm) Fertilization: internal Body covering: skin with hair Limbs: 4 Respiration: lungs Method of reproduction: give birth to live young • 4-chambered heart • Nurse young • Large, well-developed brains Monotremes • Monotremes egg laying –Duck-billed platypus, spiny anteater Marsupials • Marsupials pouched –Kangaroo, opossum Placental Mammals • Placental young in uterus nourished by placenta –11 orders –Ex: humans, horses, cows…etc. Animal Behavior • Behavior: what an animal does in response to a stimulus – Ex: environment, feeding, mating • Innate behavior: inherited behavior – Reflex automatic response to a stimulus (no conscious control) – Fight-or-flight response gets body ready for greater activity • Automatic response (controlled by hormones and nervous system) • Instinctive behavior: involve more complex actions – Courtship behavior: males and females carry out before mating – Territory: physical space an animal defends against other members of its species • Uses pheromones to mark territory • Aggressive behavior: used to intimidate another animal of the same species • Dominance hierarchy: different levels of dominant and submissive animals – Pecking order • Circadian rhythm: 24 hour, light-regulated sleep/wake cycle of behavior – Controlled by genes • Migration: rhythms that occur on a yearly or seasonal cycle – Seasonal movements of animals • Hibernation: body temperature drops, oxygen consumption decreases, breathing rate drops to conserve energy • Estivation: state of reduced metabolism in high heat environments Learned Behavior • Habituation: animal is repeatedly given a stimulus not associated with punishment or reward • Imprinting: form social attachment to another object • Trial-and-error learning • Motivation • Classical conditioning learning by association • Insight using previous experiences to respond to a new situation Ch. 26-34 Review #2 1. The process of fertilization in which adults release eggs and sperm into surrounding water is called ___. a. asexual reproduction b. asexual fertilization c. internal fertilization d. external fertilization 2. The process in which eggs are fertilized inside the body of a female is called ____. a. internal fertilization b. asexual fertilization c. external fertilization d. asexual reproduction 3. What does an ectotherm use to warm up? 4. Egg-laying mammals are called ____.