Measurements and Calculations Notes Chapter 3 I. Scientific Method The process researchers use to carry out their investigations. It is a logical approach to solving problems. A. Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Ask a question Observe and collect data Formulate a hypothesis (a testable if-then statement). The hypothesis serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments. Test your hypothesis – Requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute your hypothesis. B. Terms to Know 1. Law vs. theory Scientific (natural) Law: a general statement based on the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known. Theory: a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena. 1. Quantitative vs. qualitative data Quantitative: numerical (mass, density) Quantity - number + unit Qualitative: descriptive (color, shape) II. SI (System of International) Units of Measurements Adopted in 1960 by the General Conference on Weights and Measures. A. Metric System – must know this Mass is measured in kilograms (other mass units: grams, milligrams) Volume in liters Length in meters B. Prefixes are added to the stem or base unit to represent quantities that are larger or smaller then the stem or base unit. You must know the following: Prefix Value Abbreviation Pico 10-12 0.000000000001 Nano 10-9 0.000000001 Micro 10-6 0.000001 Milli 10-3 0.001 Centi 10-2 0.01 Deci 10-1 0.1 (stem: liter, meter, gram) Deka 101 10 Hecto 102 100 Kilo 103 1000 Mega 106 1000000 Ex p n m c d pg nm g mm cl dg da h k M dal hm kg Mm Examples: 1Mm=1,000,000m 1km=1000m 1hm=100m 1dam=10m 1m=1m 1dm=0.1m 1cm=0.01m 1mm=0.001m 1μm=0.000001m When solving problems I will always “put a 1 with the prefix.” Starting from the largest value, mega, to the smallest value, pico, a way to remember the correct order is: Miss (Mega) Kathy (Kilo) Hall (Hecto) Drinks (Deka) Gatorade, Milk, and Lemonade (Gram, Meter, Liter) During (Deci) Class on (Centi) Monday (Milli) Morning and (Micro) Never (Nano) Peed (Pico) C. Derived Units: combinations of quantities: area (m2), Density (g/cm3), Volume (cm3 or mL) 1cm3 = 1mL D. Temperature- Be able to convert between degrees Celcius and Kelvin. Absolute zero is 0 K, a temperature where all molecular motion ceases to exist. Has not yet been attained, but scientists are within thousandths of a degree of 0 K. No degree sign is used for Kelvin temperatures. Celcius to Kelvin: K = C + 273 Convert 98 ° C to Kelvin: 98° C + 273 = 371 K Ex: New materials can act as superconductors at temperatures above 250 K. Convert 250 K to degrees Fahrenheit. (9/5C + 32 = F) or (5/9(F - 32)=C) III. Density – relationship of mass to volume D = m/V Density is a derived unit (from both mass and volume) For solids: D = grams/cm3 Liquids: D = grams/mL Gases: D = grams/liter Know these units Density is a conversion factor. Water has a density of 1g/mL which means 1g=1mL!! When calculating density, 1) find out how many grams you have, 2) determine the total volume your mass occupies, divide the two numbers, and report your answer in the correct units. Example Problems: 1. An unknown metal having a mass of 287.8 g was added to a graduated cylinder that contained 31.47 mL of water. After the addition of the metal, the water level rose to 58.85 mL. Calculate the density of the metal. 2. The density of mercury is 13.6 g/L. How many grams would l.00 liter of mercury weigh? 3. A solid with dimensions of 3.0 cm X 4.0 cm X 2.0 cm has a mass of 28 g. Will this solid float in water? (water has a density of l.00 g/ml) 4. A gas has a density of 0.824 g/L and occupies a volume of 3.00 liters. How much does the gas weigh? I LOVE DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS! IV. Dimensional Analysis - When you finish this section, you will be able to: convert between English and metric units; convert values from one prefix to another. Dimensional analysis is the single most valuable mathematical technique that you will use in general chemistry. The method involves using conversion factors to cancel units until you have the proper unit in the proper place. A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent measurements, so a conversion factor is equal to one. For example, how many quarters are in $5.85? You know there are 4 quarters in one dollar. 4 quarters = $1.00 is a conversion factor. $5.85 4 quarters = 23.40 quarters $1.00 Notice that the dollar sign cancels out and your answer is in “quarters.” When you are setting up problems using dimensional analysis, you are more concerned with units than with numbers. Let’s illustrate this by finding out the mass of a 125 pound box (1 kg = 2.2046 pounds). PROBLEM SOLVING STEPS 1. List the relevant conversion factors 2. Set up the problem as follows* 125 pounds 1 kg 2.2046 pounds = 56.7 kg 3. Multiply all the values in the numerator and divide by all those in the denominator. 4. Double check that your units cancel properly. If they do, your numerical answer is probably correct. if they don’t, your answer is certainly wrong. UNITS ARE THE KEY TO PROBLEM SOLVING Practice with Dimensional Analysis 1. It takes exactly one egg to make 8 pancakes, including other ingredients. A pancake eating contest was held at which the winner ate 74 pancakes in 6 minutes. At this rate, how many eggs (in the pancake) would be eaten by the winner in 1.0 hour? Following our problem solving procedure, Step 1. Conversion Factors: 1 egg = 8 pancakes. Keep in mind that this is exactly the same as 8 pancakes = 1 egg. You can therefore either use 1 egg/ 8 pancakes or 8 pancakes/ 1 egg However, it is NOT CORRECT to use 8 eggs/1 pancake or 1 pancake/ 8 eggs When you flip units, the numbers must flip with them. b. Although it is not stated in the problem, you need a conversion factor from minutes to hours. 60 minutes/ 1 hour or 1 hour /60 minutes c. 74 pancakes per 6 minutes can be expressed as 74 pancakes/ 6 minutes or 6 minutes/ 74 pancakes Step 2. Setting up the Problem Dimensional analysis will often involve converting between prefixes of the same unit. You must be very careful to think about if your final value makes sense. Complete the following using dimensional analysis: 1. a. b. c. d. Convert the following metric units: 42 µm to m 62.9 kg to g 49.8 mL to L 33.9 pm to m 2. Convert the following units: a. 7.51 miles o meters b. 38 feet to cm 3. Your heart pumps 2,000 gallons of blood per day. How long (in years) would your heart have been pumping if it pumped 1,500,000 gallons of blood? 4. Eggs are shipped from a poultry farm in trucks. The eggs are packed in cartons of one dozen eggs each; the cartons are placed in crates that hold 20.cartons each. The crates are stacked in the trucks, 5 crates across, 25 crates deep, and 25 crates high. How many eggs are in 5.0 truckloads? V. Using Scientific Measurements ACCURATE = CORRECT PRECISE = CONSISTENT A. Precision and Accuracy 1. Precision – the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantities made in the same way (how well repeated measurements of a value agree with one another). 2. Accuracy – is determined by the agreement between the measured quantity and the correct value. Ex: Throwing Darts B. Percent Error-is calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the accepted value, then dividing the difference by the accepted value. Multiply this number by 100. Accuracy can be compared quantitatively with the accepted value using percent error. Percent error = Accepted value - Experimental value X 100 Accepted value C. Counting Significant Figures When you report a measured value, it is assumed that all the figures are correct except for the last one, where there is an uncertainty of ±1. If your value is expressed in proper exponential notation, all of the figures in the preexponential value are significant, with the last digit being the least significant figure (LSF). “7.143 x 10-3 grams” contains 4 significant figures If that value is expressed as 0.007143, it still has 4 significant figures. Zeros, in this case, are placeholders. If you are ever in doubt about the number of significant figures in a value, write it in exponential notation. Example of nail on page 46: the nail is 6.36cm long. The 6.3 are certain values and the final 6 is uncertain! There are 3 significant figures in 6.36cm (2 certain and 1 uncertain). The reader can see that the 6.3 are certain values because they appear on the ruler, but the reader has to estimate the final 6. Significant Figures Indicate precision of a measurement. Recording Significant Figures (sig figs) Sig figs in a measurement include the known digits plus a final estimated digit 2.35 cm The rules for counting significant figures are: 1. Leading zeros do not count. 2. Captive zeros always count. 3. Trailing zeros count only if there is a decimal. Give the number of significant figures in the following values: a. 38.4703 mL c. 0.05700 s b. 0.00052 g d. 6.19 x 101 years Helpful Hint :Convert to exponential form if you are not certain as to the proper number of significant figures. A very important idea is that you DO NOT ROUND OFF YOUR ANSWER UNTIL THE VERY END OF THE PROBLEM. D. Significant Figures in Calculations Perform the indicated calculations on the following measured values, giving the final answer with the correct number of significant figures. 1. In addition and subtraction, your answer should have the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places. EX: find the answer for 12.734-3.0 Solution: 12.734 has 3 figures past the decimal point. 3.0 has only 1 figure past the decimal point. Therefore, your final result, where only addition or subtraction is involved, should round off to one figure past the decimal point. 12.734 - 3.0 9.734 -------- 9.7 Add/Subtract – additional example 3.75 mL + 4.1 mL 7.85 mL 7.9 mL a. b. c. 32.3 – 25.993 84 + 34.99 43.222 – 38.12834 2. In multiplication and division, your answer should have the same number of significant figures as the least precise measurement. 61 x 0.00745 = 0.45445 = 0.45 2SF a. 32 x 0.00003987 b. 5 x 1.882 c. 47. 8823 X 9.322 3. There is no uncertainty in a conversion factor; therefore they do not affect the degree of certainty of your answer. The answer should have the same number of SF as the initial value. a. Convert 25. meters to millimeters. b. Convert 0.12 L to mL. E. Use of the Calculator in Chemistry. You need to know how to enter the following functions on your calculator: A. exp or ee button – to enter scientific notation B. yx or xy button – to enter powers of numbers C. take the square root of a number We’ll practice!!! F. Scientific Notation-used to express very large or very small numbers 1 X 10-2 Convert to scientific notation: a. 1760 b. 0.00135 c. 10.2 d. –0.00000673 e. 301.0 f. 0.000000532 Convert to scientific notation: a. 1760 b. 0.00135 c. 10.2 Expand each number (or convert to regular notation): a. 4.78 x l02 c. –9.3 x l0-3 b. 5.50 x l04 G. Correct scientific notation only has ONE number (1-9) on the left side of the decimal. Correct these: a. 36.7 x l0-2 b. 0.l5 x l0-3 c. 176.4 x l0-1 H. Real World Connections : Information from the website “Medication Math for the Nursing Student” at http://www.alysion.org/dime nsional/analysis.htm#proble ms A shocking number of patients die every year in United States hospitals as the result of medication errors, and many more are harmed. One widely cited estimate (Institute of Medicine, 2000) places the toll at 44,000 to 98,000 deaths, making death by medication "misadventure" greater than all highway accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS. If this estimate is in the ballpark, then nurses (and patients) beware: Medication errors are the forth to sixth leading cause of death in America. Actual problems encountered in nursing practice (others posted on website): You are to give "grain 5 FeSO4" but the available bottle gives only the milligrams of iron sulfate per tablet (325 mg/tab). How many milligrams is the order for?