Beginning of life
Fertilization: Unite egg and sperm—
becomes zygote
2. Implantation: zygote reaches uterus in 4-5
days and attaches to uterine wall—then is
called an embryo when it attaches
3. After this happens you are pregnant and have
HCG in your system
Development in Uterus
1. Amniotic sac: fluid filled sac of thin tissue that
develops around embryo for protection and
temperature control
2. Placenta: lines the uterus during pregnancy and
nourishes the embryo with substances from
mothers blood---dangerous fluids can pass
through this ie. Alcohol, tobacco and drugs
3. Umbilical Cord: develops between embryo and
placenta—blood vessels carry nutrients and
oxygen from placenta to embryo and wastes out
Growing Embryo
• First 2 months of development the body
systems and organs start to form—heart
beating, endocrine glands are examples
• From 3rd moth to birth
• 3rd to 6th month fetus starts to move—
development of skeletal and muscular systems
• Also sensitive to light and sound—nervous
• From 7th to 9th month—fetus continue to grow
and accumulate fat, eyelids open and close
• 9th month fetus ready to be born
Healthy Pregnancy
• Proper nutrition: Getting the right nutrients is
most important because what you eat also feeds
your baby
• Exercise: reduces risk of diabetes
• Avoiding alcohol and other drugs: even in small
amounts they can harm your fetus and result in
fetal alcohol syndrome, mental disabilities, heart
defects and delayed growth
• Avoid environmental hazards: x-rays, lead,
mercury, and cat litter
Prenatal Care
• 3 trimesters: 3 months long each
• Obstetrician: doctor specializes in pregnancy and
• Monitoring tools
-ultrasound: used to see baby
-chorionic villus sampling: piece of placenta to
determine any inherited disorders
-amniocentesis: amniotic fluid to test for
• Ectopic pregnancy: fertilized egg implants in
fallopian tubfe instead of uterus—surgery is
necessary to remove
• Miscarriage: death of embryo in first 20 weeks-at
least 15% of pregnancies end in miscarriage
• Preeclampsia: high blood pressure, swelling of
wrists and ankles and high levels of protein in
urine-prevents oxygen to fetus
• Gestational diabetes: high blood sugar levels—
can result in big baby, hard delivery and breathing
Birth Process
• Labor: work performed by mother to push fetus
out-strong contractions of muscles make cervix
increase in width
• Delivery of baby: contractions continue and push
baby out of cervix and vagina usually head first
• Delivery of afterbirth: push out placenta
Postpartum period—period of adjustment for
parents and their newborn beginnings first 6
weeks—periods of sadness could lead into
postpartum depression
Complications at Birth
• Stillbirth: fetus passes away after the 20th week
• Surgical delivery: cesarean section-surgery in
lower abdomen into the uterus—done because
mother not healthy, baby is breech (feet first),
baby in distress
• Premature birth: delivery before 37th week, baby
not fully developed
• Low birth weight: weighs less than 5.5 lbs., can
also be premature, low birthweight happens for
different reasons but drugs, alcohol and tobacco
are a major cause