Territory Review • Texas was annexed in 1845 • Mexican Cession was given to the US in 1848 from the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • 1848 Oregon Country from extension of 49th Parallel- agreement with Britain • 1850- California applies for statehood! The Road to Secession 1846- 1861 United States, 1848 Compromise of 1850 • Polk and others want to extend the Missouri Compromise Line to divide the Mexican Cession (Land won in the MexicanAmerican War) • Sectionalism divided the nation and states enforced their rights by ignoring federal laws (Remember, sectionalism is an extreme loyalty to your own idea) • Henry Clay, “The Great Compromiser” proposes a plan called the Compromise of 1850. Provisions of the Compromise of 1850 1. California enters Union as a free state. 2. Rest of the Mexican Cession would be divided, and popular sovereignty would decide the slavery status 3. Popular sovereignty – allowing the people to decide on issues 4. Settled a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico 5. End slave trade in the country’s capital 6. Enforce a tougher fugitive slave law. Kansas-Nebraska Act • In 1853 the US pays $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase. • 1854- Senator Stephen Douglas devised a plan to open the rest of the Louisiana Purchase to slavery. • The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase into two territories (Kansas and Nebraska Territory) and said that slavery would depend on popular sovereignty. Bleeding Kansas • Result of Kansas-Nebraska Act • In 1855, there were more proslavery than antislavery settlers in the Kansas Territory. • People from Missouri came and voted illegally filling the legislature with proslavery representatives • Antislavery settlers rejected the elected government and decided to take arms against their brethren. • John Brown led his men and killed his proslavery neighbors causing a civil war in Kansas. Buddy Buzz • Why do you think this event was called Bloody Kansas? Violence in Congress • Senator Sumner gave a speech against proslavery in Kansas • Preston Brooks heard his speech and attacked Sumner. • Brooks was cheered in the South. The North was shocked. Graphic Organizer What to do: • Fill out each section describing what each Compromise/Act did. • Remember the 5 W’s and How – Who devised it? – What did it do? – When did it happen? – Where/What states were involved – Why was it important? – How do you think it affected the United States? Dred Scott Decision • 1857-US Supreme Court ruled that slaves are not citizens in the Dred Scott Decision. • Court ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and you could not deprive someone of their property. Buddy Buzz • Imagine you were a Northerner during this time period and you just heard about the Dred Scott decision. – What would your reaction be? – Would you stand up for what you believed was right or let injustice continue to happen? Why? Abolitionists John Brown Harriet Beecher Stowe Abolitionists • John Brown led a huge slave uprising called the Harpers Ferry Raid. He was captured and hanged! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e1OFdpUsO8w • Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin which informed the citizens of the US of the horrors of slavery Photograph Analysis – John Brown Analysis What images did you see in the first picture to make you believe that John Brown was a villain? What images did you see in the second picture to make you believe that John Brown was a patriot? What do you believe John Brown was? A patriot or villain? Why? 1860 Election • Sectionalism had deeply divided political parties and 4 candidates ran for president. • Southern political parties had 3 candidates. • Abraham Lincoln was chosen to represent the Republican party (north) – he believed slavery was wrong and would have to end sometime. Lincoln’s Victory and Secession • No candidate had a majority! • Nov. 1860- Southern states had too many candidates, so Lincoln won with only 39.4% of the vote. • Southerners were sure Lincoln would ban slavery. • Dec. 1860- South Carolina delegates voted to secede from the Union Confederate States of America • By Feb. 1, 1861- South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had seceded! • Feb. 4th- Created an independent nation called the Confederate States of America. • Elected Jefferson Davis from Virginia as President. • The Constitution did not allow or forbid secession, but Lincoln did not accept!