Compromise of 1850

Territory Review
• Texas was annexed in 1845
• Mexican Cession was given to the US in
1848 from the Treaty of Guadalupe
• 1848 Oregon Country from extension of
49th Parallel- agreement with Britain
• 1850- California applies for statehood!
The Road to
1846- 1861
United States, 1848
Compromise of 1850
• Polk and others want to extend the Missouri
Compromise Line to divide the Mexican
Cession (Land won in the MexicanAmerican War)
• Sectionalism divided the nation and states
enforced their rights by ignoring federal
laws (Remember, sectionalism is an
extreme loyalty to your own idea)
• Henry Clay, “The Great Compromiser”
proposes a plan called the Compromise of
Provisions of the Compromise of 1850
1. California enters Union as a free state.
2. Rest of the Mexican Cession would be
divided, and popular sovereignty would
decide the slavery status
3. Popular sovereignty – allowing the people
to decide on issues
4. Settled a border dispute between Texas
and New Mexico
5. End slave trade in the country’s capital
6. Enforce a tougher fugitive slave law.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
• In 1853 the US pays $10 million for the
Gadsden Purchase.
• 1854- Senator Stephen Douglas devised a
plan to open the rest of the Louisiana
Purchase to slavery.
• The Kansas-Nebraska Act divided the
remainder of the Louisiana Purchase
into two territories (Kansas and
Nebraska Territory) and said that slavery
would depend on popular sovereignty.
Bleeding Kansas
• Result of Kansas-Nebraska Act
• In 1855, there were more proslavery
than antislavery settlers in the Kansas
• People from Missouri came and voted
illegally filling the legislature with
proslavery representatives
• Antislavery settlers rejected the elected
government and decided to take arms
against their brethren.
• John Brown led his men and killed his
proslavery neighbors causing a civil war
in Kansas.
Buddy Buzz
• Why do you think this event was called
Bloody Kansas?
Violence in Congress
• Senator Sumner gave a speech against
proslavery in Kansas
• Preston Brooks heard his speech and
attacked Sumner.
• Brooks was cheered in the South. The
North was shocked.
Graphic Organizer
What to do:
• Fill out each section describing what each
Compromise/Act did.
• Remember the 5 W’s and How
– Who devised it?
– What did it do?
– When did it happen?
– Where/What states were involved
– Why was it important?
– How do you think it affected the United
Dred Scott Decision
• 1857-US Supreme Court
ruled that slaves are not
citizens in the Dred Scott
• Court ruled that the
Missouri Compromise was
unconstitutional and you
could not deprive someone
of their property.
Buddy Buzz
• Imagine you were a Northerner during this
time period and you just heard about the
Dred Scott decision.
– What would your reaction be?
– Would you stand up for what you believed was
right or let injustice continue to happen?
John Brown
Harriet Beecher Stowe
• John Brown led a huge slave uprising
called the Harpers Ferry Raid. He was
captured and hanged!
• Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the novel
Uncle Tom’s Cabin which informed the
citizens of the US of the horrors of slavery
Photograph Analysis – John
What images did you see in the first picture
to make you believe that John Brown was a
What images did you see in the second
picture to make you believe that John Brown
was a patriot?
What do you believe John Brown was? A
patriot or villain? Why?
1860 Election
• Sectionalism had deeply divided
political parties and 4 candidates ran for
• Southern political parties had 3
• Abraham Lincoln was chosen to
represent the Republican party (north)
– he believed slavery was wrong and
would have to end sometime.
Lincoln’s Victory and
• No candidate had a majority!
• Nov. 1860- Southern states had too many
candidates, so Lincoln won with only
39.4% of the vote.
• Southerners were sure Lincoln would ban
• Dec. 1860- South Carolina delegates
voted to secede from the Union
Confederate States of
• By Feb. 1, 1861- South Carolina,
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
Louisiana, and Texas had seceded!
• Feb. 4th- Created an independent nation
called the Confederate States of America.
• Elected Jefferson Davis from Virginia as
• The Constitution did not allow or forbid
secession, but Lincoln did not accept!