Name: ANSWERS Period: Date: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY – THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION STUDY GUIDE Unit 1 CP1 Quizam Thursday October 2 Anatomy & Physiology Defined *2 (* = page #’s in Marieb text) Anatomy is the study of the __structures_____ of the body and body parts and Physiology is the study of the __functions_____ of the body and body parts. Define Anatomical Position *11 Standing in anatomical position is similar to “standing at attention”. The body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing, eyes, and toes all facing the __anterior (ventral)___ surface. 10 Directional Terms *11 and 12 In anatomical position, the gluteal region and scapular regions are on the __dorsal/posterior___ body surface. The top of the head is the most ____superior_________________ part of the body. The ears are __medial (or superior)______ to the shoulders and __lateral_______ to the nose. The heart is _deep____ to the skeleton. The elbow is ____proximal_______________ to the fingers, but ___distal___ to the shoulder. The sternum is ___medial the shoulder. (or inferior)_________________ to 4 Body Planes *15 If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts, the section is a _sagittal____ section, but is the heart is cut so that anterior and posterior parts result, the section is _____frontal_____. In the body portraits the top half of the body was separate from the lower half of the body. These two portions of the body were separated by a ____transverse______ plane. 32 Anatomical Body Regions *13 – 15 Mrs. Coleman was jogging and accidentally stepped into a pothole. What are three different body regions that might have suffered damage? (give the body region names and briefly explain the location on the body) Mrs. Coleman may have hurt her digital region which is her toes, her tarsal region which is her ankle, or her patellar region which is her kneecap/ anterior knee. was trying to impress Justin Timberlake with a tale about his last baseball game. “The coach said I suffered an injury to the dorsal antecubital in my groin”. Justin with his background in anatomy and physiology knew better and said, “I think either you or your coach suffered a cephalic injury.” Why wasn’t Justin impressed by his/her athletic prowess? Be specific in explaining all underlined anatomical terminology. __(Insert your name here)__ Dorsal is the back surface and antecubital is the front of the elbow. These regions are nowhere near the inguinal region which is where the body trunk meets the thigh. Anatomy is the study of structures and physiology is the study of the functions of the structures. Cephalic injury would be an injury to the head. Ventral and Dorsal Body Cavities/Location of Major Organs *16 Fill-in the following blanks with the BODY CAVITIES where the following surgical procedures would occur. First list each procedure as pertaining to the dorsal or ventral body cavity, then name the cavity subdivision using the terms provided. (for example: dorsal – cranial) abdominal vertebral/spinal cranial pelvic thoracic ___ventral_____ - __________abdominal____ A stomach ulcer operation ___ventral________ - _______thoracic______ Coronary bypass/ heart surgery ___ventral ______ - ________pelvic_______ Removal of the uterus, or womb ___dorsal______ - __________cranial_______ Removal of a serious brain tumor Abdominopelvic Cavity Regions/Location of Major Organs *17 Fill-in the following blanks with the specific ABDOMINOPELVIC cavity using the regions provided below. epigastric umbilical L / R hypochondriac The appendix is located in the ___right L / R lumbar hypogastric L / R inguinal inguinal_____ abdominopelvic region. The region that contains a majority of the stomach is the _____epigastric______ region. The _____hypogastric_ region contains the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs. The small and large intestines are located in the left and right inguinal as well as the left and right lumbar, but the majority of the small intestine is located in the ____umbilical___ region. Levels of Organization *2 and 3 Fill in the following levels of structural organization: Atom Molecule Organelles ___cell______ (basic unit of living things) _______tissue_____ ______organ_______ ______organ system________ Organism Overview of 11 Body Systems/Main Functions and Organs *4 – 7 List the Organ System – What System is it? Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes. Urinary (excretory) Includes the heart & blood vessels. Cardiovascular Protects the body; destroys bacteria & tumor cells. Immune Breaks down food into small particles that can be absorbed. Digestive Moves the limbs; allows facial expression. Muscular Controls the body with chemicals called hormones. Endocrine Is damaged when you cut your finger or get a severe sunburn. Integumentary 6 Life Processes *7 – 9 Movement includes all activities promoted by the muscular system; movement also occurs when substances such as blood, food, and urine are propelled through the organ systems. Responsiveness is the ability to sense changes called stimuli_ in the environment and to react to them. Digestion is the process of breaking down food into small molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. __Metabolism_ is a broad term that refers to all the chemical reactions that occur within body cells. ___Excretion___ is the process of removing wastes from the body. Reproduction is the production of offspring, or new cells and Growth is an increase in size (# of cells). Homeostasis *9 What is HOMEOSTASIS? The body’s ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment. 3 Components of a Control System to Maintain Homeostasis *10 Fill-in the following blanks using the words provided, best completing each sentence to describe the homeostatic mechanism that maintains your blood pressure at a normal level. negative positive control center effectors output receptors input stimulus The change in body temperature is a change in the internal body environment called a(n) ____stimulus____, which causes ___receptors_____ in your skin to sense the decreased body temperature. As a result, nerve impulses, called __input____ are sent to your brain, which is known as the ___control center_____. Your brain conveys nerve impulses, called the __output_______, to your muscles. Your muscles serve as the __effectors____ and cause the desired response: an elevation of your body temperature back to normal because you are shivering and generating heat. The homeostatic mechanism just described (change in BODY TEMPERATURE) is an example of __negative__ feedback. This is the most common type of feedback mechanism which works by reversing the original stimulus. Positive vs. Negative Feedback/ Examples *10 In a ______positive______ feedback system the original stimulus is increased and the variable is pushed farther from its original value. This type of feedback mechanism is much rarer in the body. One example of this type of feedback is __childbirth____.