PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPETIES OF WASTE

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ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT
IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
‘Characteristics of Industrial
Waste’
By; Mrs Hafiza Binti Shukor
Student should be able to;
EXPLAIN, INTERPRET, and
CALCULATE the physical, chemical
and biological properties of waste
material and DESCRIBE its toxicology.
REWRITE the common wastewater
constituents and contaminants.
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Physical



Related to the quality of water for domestic use.
Associated with the appearance of water
Eg. Color, turbidity, temperature, taste and odor.
Chemical


Sometimes evidenced by their observed reactions (comparative performance of
hard & soft waters in laundering)
Most often, differences are not visible.
Microbiology


Very important in their relation to public health
Significant in modifying the physical and chemical characteristic of water
Radiological

Considered in areas where there is a possibility that the water may have come in
contact with radioactive substances
(Davis and Cornwell,2008)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SOLIDS
Solids removed by
settling and separated
from wash water are
called sludge, which
may then be pumped
to drying beds or
filtered for extraction
of additional water
(dewatering).
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
The most important characteristic of wastewater
Composed of floating matter, settleable matter, colloidal
matter and matter in solution.
Solids found in wastewater;
Total solids (TS)
Mass remain after evaporation at 103-105oC
Total Suspended Solid (TSS)
Mass remain on whatman filter GF/C after drying at
103-105oC
Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS)
Solids that can be volatilized and burned off when
TSS are ignited at 500+50oC. (applied most
commonly to wastewater sludge to measure their
biological stability)
Total dissolved solids (TDS)
Those solids that pass through the filter and are then
evaporated and dried at specified temp.
Settleable Solids
Solid settle at the bottom of an “Inhoff Cone” after
60mins
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
TURBIDITY
(Davis and Cornwell,2008)
Measure of the light –transmitting properties of the
water due to presence of suspended material such as
clay, organic material, plankton & other particulate
material.
Measured based on comparison of the intensity of light
scattered by reference suspension under the same
condition.
Unit = Turbidity Unit (TU)@
Nephlometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)
Clay @ other suspended particle – not adversely affect
health but water containing such particles may require
treatment.
Turbidity excess of 5 TU easily detectable in a glass of
water.
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
COLOR
Refer to degree of absorption of light energy in visible
spectrum (400-700nm)
Causes by ;
• dissolved organic material from decaying vegetation &
certain inorganic matter.
• excessive blooms of algae or growth of aquatic
microorganisms.
But its presence is aesthetically objectionable & needs
appropriate treatment.
Activated sludge and trickling filters can remove a certain
percentage of some types of colored matter.
Sometimes color matters needs chemical oxidation
procedures for removal.
(Davis and Cornwell,2008)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
TASTE
&
ODOR
(Davis and Cornwell,2008)
Cause by foreign matter (organic compound,
inorganic salts @ dissolved gases.
Odors are usually caused by gases produced by
the decomposition of organic matter or by
substances added to the wastewater.
Industrial wastewater may contain either
odorous compounds or compounds that
produce odor during the process of wastewater
treatment.
Comes from domestic, agricultural @ natural
sources.
At point of use, drinking water should be free
from any objectionable taste @ odor.
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
TEMP.
Very important parameter - its effect on chemical
reactions and reaction rates, aquatic life, and the
suitability of the water for beneficial uses.
The increase in the rate of biochemical reactions that
accompanies an increase in temperature, combined with
the decrease in the quantity of oxygen present in surface
waters, can often cause serious depletions in dissolved
oxygen concentration in the summer months.
Abnormally high temperatures can foster the growth of
undesirable water plants and wastewater fungus
Most desirable drinking waters are consistently cool &
do not have fluctuations of more than a few degrees.
Oxygen is less soluble in warm water than in cold
water
Industrial establishments that use surface water for
cooling-water purposes are particularly concerned with
the temperature of the intake water.
Groundwater & surface water usually meet these
criteria.
(Davis and Cornwell,2008)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
pH
The hydrogen-ion concentration is an important quality
parameter of wastewater.
The concentration range suitable for the existence of
most biological life is quite narrow and critical.
Wastewater with an adverse concentration of hydrogen
ion is difficult to treat by biological means, and if the
concentration is not altered before discharge, the
wastewater effluent may alter the concentration in the
natural waters.
(Davis and Cornwell,2008)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Example 1; Analysis of Solids Data….
Determine the concentration of total solids(TS), total dissolved solids (TDS),
total suspended solids (TSS), and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in 50mL of
wastewater based on data given;
Mass of dry dish = 53.5433 g
Mass of dry dish + residue after drying at 105 oC = 53.5794 g
Mass of dry dish + residue after ignition at 550 oC = 53.5625 g
Mass of Whatman GF/C filter = 1.5433 g
Mass of Whatman GF/C filter + residue after drying at 105 oC = 1.5554 g
Mass of Whatman GF/C filter + residue after ignition at 550 oC = 1.5476 g
Ans :
Total solids(TS) = 722 mg/L
Total dissolved solids (TDS) = 480 mg/L
Total suspended solids (TSS) = 242 mg/L
Volatile suspended solids (VSS) = 156 mg/L
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
CHLORIDE
FLUORIDE
Most of water contain.
Amount presence causes by ;
-Leaching of marine sedimentary deposits
-Pollution from sea water @ brine @ industrial
@ domestic waste.
Chloride conc. > 250 mg/L – noticeable taste
Domestic water should contain < 100 mg/L chloride.
Some areas – water source contain natural fluoride.
Excessive fluoride in drinking water – produce
fluorosis (mottling) of teeth.
Mottled – black sports @ streaks and may become
brittle when exposed to large amounts of fluoride.
Acceptable level for fluoride conc. between 0.8 – 1.3
mg/L
(Davis and Cornwell, 2008)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Because nitrogen is an essential building block in
the synthesis of protein, nitrogen data will be required
to evaluate the treatability of wastewater by biological
processes.
Insufficient nitrogen can necessitate the addition of
nitrogen to make the wastewater treatable.
Where control of alga growth in the receiving water
is necessary to protect beneficial uses, removal or
reduction of nitrogen in wastewaters prior to discharge
may be desirable.
The total nitrogen, as a commonly used parameter,
consists of many numerous compounds such as; NH3,
NH4-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, urea, organic-N (amines,
amino acids, ...etc).
Ammonia-Nitrogen Test (Bio Laboratory)
Using DR2800 reactor
Prepare Sample: Fill a 25mL volumetric flask with 25mL of waste sample.
Blank Preparation: Fill a 25mL volumetric flask with 25mL of distilled water.
 3 different reagent (Ammonia Nitrogen Reagent) will be used:
- Mineral Mtabilizer
-Polyvinyl Alcohol
-Nessler Reagent
Add three drops of Mineral Stabilizer to volumetric flask. Stopper and invert
several times to mix.
Add three drops of Polyvinyl Alcohol to each volumetric flask. Stopper and
invert several times to mix.
Pipette 1.0mL of Nessler Reagent into each volumetric flask. Stopper and
invert several times to mix.
Phosphorus.
Phosphorus is also essential to the growth of
algae and other biological organisms.
The organically bound phosphorus is an
important constituent of industrial wastewater and
sludge.
Sulfur.
Sulfate is reduced biologically under anaerobic
conditions to sulfide, which in turn can combine
with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
The accumulated H2S can then be oxidized
biologically to sulfuric acid, which is corrosive to
steel pipes and equipment.
Continue….
TOXIC
INORGANIC
SUBSTANCES
Major clases ;
a) Nitrates (NO3) b) Cyanides (CN)
c) Heavy metals constituents;
– arsenics (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd),
chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), selenium
(Se), and silver (Ag)
- effects – cause poisons ( As and Cr 6+)
- chronic disease (Pb, Cd, and Hg)
(Davis and Cornwell, 2008)
TOXIC
ORGANIC
SUBSTANCES
There are over 120 toxic organic compounds listed
on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Priority
Pollutant List.
Eg; pesticide, insecticides and solvents.
Effects may be acute @chronic.
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
MEASUREMENT OF ORGANIC
SUBSTANCES
The analysis used to measure aggregate organic material may be divided into 2;
To measure gross conc. of organic substance greater than 1.0 mg/L
To measure trace conc. in the range of 10-12 to 100 mg/L
Laboratory methods commonly used today to measure gross amounts of
organic matter (typically greater than 1mg/L) in wastewater include;
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Total organic carbon (TOD)
Complementing of these laboratory tests is the theoretical oxygen demand
(ThOD), which is determined from the chemical formula of the organic matter.
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD)
The most widely used parameter of organic pollution
5-day BOD – involved the measurement of the dissolved oxygen used by
microorganisms in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter.
BOD test results are used to;
Determine the appropriate quantity of oxygen that will be required to
biologically stabilize the organic matter present.
Measure the efficiency of some treatment process
Determine the size of waste treatment facilities.
Determine compliance with wastewater discharge permits.
BOD at 20oC for 5 days is used as standard test (measure after 5 days in incubation
at 20oC).
Use bacteria to oxidize biodegradable organic in wastewater sample after
incubation.
BOD can be calculates by measuring DO before & after incubation.
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
BOD can be calculated by;
 when the dilution water is not seeded;
BOD (mg/L) = D1 – D2
P
 when the dilution water is seeded;
BOD (mg/L) = (D1-D2)- (B1 – B2) f
P
f = % seed in D1
% seed in B1
where,
D1 = dissolved oxygen of diluted sample after preparation (mg/L)
D2 =dissolved oxygen of diluted sample after 5days @ 20oC(mg/L)
P = volumetric fraction of sample used to total volume
B1 = dissolved oxygen of seed control before incubation (mg/L)
B2 = dissolved oxygen of seed control after incubation (mg/L)
f = ratio of sample to seed in control
Seeded is done if the WW is known to contain insufficient numb of
microorganism for degradation of WW.
Use suitable bacteria culture with the WW system
CONTROL is used to eliminate effects by the presence of impurities in dilution
water to the BOD value (need to aerated atleast 2hr)
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
 A high concentration of active, acclimated seed
bacteria is required.
 Pretreatment is needed when dealing with toxic
wastes, and the effects of nitrifying organisms must be
reduced.
 Only the biodegradable organics are measured.
 The test does not have stoichiometric validity after
the soluble organic matter present in solution has
been used.
 An arbitrary, long period of time is required to
obtain results.
Continue….
REACTION KINETICS OF BOD….
Is assumed to obey first-order kinetics.
dLt
 kLt
dt
integration
ln Lt   kt
Lt
k
 kt
 e  10
L
Where,
Lt = amount of 1st order BOD in WW at time t (mg/L)
k = reaction rate constant
L @ BODL = total @ ultimate carbonaceous BOD (mg/L)
Typical value of k for untreated wastewater (base e) is about 0.23d-1.
1st order reaction rate constant will be expressed in log (base 10) units. The
relationship between k (base e) and K (base 10)is as follows;
k (base _ e)
K (base10) 
2.303
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Continue….
REACTION KINETICS OF BOD….
k at temperature (T) other than 20oC,
kT  k20 T 20
Amount BOD at time t,
  1.056
  1.135
(T = 20 to 30oC)
(T = 4 to 20oC)
Lt  L(e kt )
Amount BOD exerted after time t,
Yt  L  Lt  L(1  e
 kt
)
Amount BOD exerted after 5 days (BOD5),
Y5  L  L5  L(1  e
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
5 k
)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Example 2; Calculation of BOD (a)
The following information is available for a seeded 5-day BOD test conducted
on a wastewater sample. 15mL of the waste sample was added directly into 300mL
incubation bottle. The initial DO of the diluted sample was 8.8mg/L and the final
DO after 5 days was 1.9mg/L . The corresponding initial and final DO of the
seeded dilution water was 9.1 and 7.9 respectively. What is the 5-day BOD
(BOD5) of the wastewater sample?
Ans : 115.2 mg/L
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Example 3; Calculation of BOD (b)
Determine the 1-day BOD and ultimate first-stage BOD for a wastewater whose
5-day 20oC BOD is 200 mg/L. The reaction constant k (base e)=0.23d-1. What
would have been the 5-day BOD if the test had been conducted at 25oC?
Ans : Lt = 293 mg/L,
BOD1=60.1 mg/L
BOD5=224 mg/L
Example 4; Calculation of BOD (c)
If BOD3 for wastewater sample is 75 mg/L and the BOD decay rate constant
is k=0.345 day-1, determine the ultimate BOD value.
Ans : L = 116 mg/L,
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Example 5; Calculation of BOD (d)
A stream of wastewater is discharged into a river at 28 oC. What is the fraction of
Maximum oxygen usage in 4 days if the BOD rate constant, k which is determined
under standard conditions is 0.115 day-1 (assume 0 = 1.135)
Ans : K28= 0.317 day-1,
BOD4/L=0.72
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD)
To measure degree of oxidation/ degradation of organics using strong chemical
agent (dichromate in an acid solution).
measure the organic matter in industrial wastewater that contains compounds that
are toxic to biological life.
It oxidizes the reduced compounds in wastewater through a reaction with a mixture
of chromic and sulfuric acid at high temperatures.
(Ca H b Oc )  Cr2 07 2  H   Cr 3  CO2  H 2O
(+6)
(+3)
Measure difference of amount of K2Cr2O7 before and after heating using ferrous
ammonium sulfate (FAS) as a reducing agent.
Higher than BOD (because more compounds can be chemically oxidized than can
be biologically oxidized)
Ratio BOD/COD varies (usually 1.5: 2 for industrial wastewater containing
biodegradable material (e.g. Food Industry).
For wastewaters with ratios higher than 3, it is assumed that some oxidizable
material in the sample is not biodegradable.
Nonbiodegradable material sometimes is called refractory and found mainly in
wastewater from chemical and pulp & paper industries.
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD) TEST
(BIO LAB)
 Use COD reactor (DRB 200). Preheat to 150ºC (2 hours).
Blank Preparation: Use a clean volumetric pipet to add 2.00 mL of distilled
water to the vial that contain COD reagent.
 Sample Preparation: Use a clean volumetric pipet to add 2.00mL of sample
to the vial.
DRB 2800 Spectrophotometer
Reading Method: Select the 435 HR.
Result are in mg/L COD will be displayed.
Differences Between Biochemical
Oxygen Demand and Chemical
Oxygen Demand(COD)
BOD
COD
Measures biodegradable
organics
Measures biodegradable
and non biodegradable
organics
Uses oxidizing
microorganism
Uses a strong chemical
agent
Affected by toxic substance
Not affected
Affected by temperature
Not affected
5 days incubation
2 hrs
Accuracy + 10%
Accuracy + 2%
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Total Organic Carbon(TOC)
To determine total organic carbon in an aqueous sample.
The test methods for TOC utilize heat & oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, chemical
oxidants, or some combination of these methods to convert organic carbon to carbon
dioxide which is measured with an infrared analyzer or by other means.
TOC can be used as a measure of its pollution characteristics and in some cases, it
has been possible to relate TOC to BOD and COD values.
Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD)
Determined based on ‘chemical formula’ of specific organic substances.
Consider ‘biochemical & nitrogenous oxygen’ demand
(Metcalf and Eddy, 2003)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Example 6; Determination of BOD/COD,
BOD/TOC, and TOC/COD Ratios
Determine the theoretical BOD/COD, BOD/TOC, and TOC/COD ratios for
The following compound C5H7NO2. Assume the value of the BOD first-order
Reaction rate constant is 0.23/d (base e) (0.10/d base 10)
Ans : BOD/COD = 0.68
BOD/TOC = 1.82
TOC/COD = 0.37
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Example 7; Calculation of ThOD
Determine the ThOD for glycine (CH2(NH2)COOH) using the following
assumption;
a)If the 1st step, the organic carbon & nitrogen are converted to carbon dioxide
(CO2) and ammonia (NH3), respectively
b)In the 2nd and 3rd steps, the ammonia is oxidized sequentially to nitrite and
nitrate.
c)The ThOD is the sum of the oxygen required for all three steps.
Ans : ThOD= 112 g O2/mol glycine.
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
DISEASE PRODUCING
ORGANISMS
(pathogens)
Water for drinking & cooking purposes must be made
FREE from disease-producing organisms (pathogens)
Disease-producing organisms (pathogens) – viruses,
bacteria, protozoa and helminths (worms).
Some organism can cause disease in people oroginate
with the fecal discharge of infected individuals @
animals.
Specific disease-producing organism presence in water
are not easily identify.
The techniques for comprehensive bacteriological
examination are COMPLEX and TIME
CONSUMING.
Eg ; Total Coliform Test
(Davis and Cornwell, 2008)
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Cause by;
The development and use of atomic energy as a power source
The mining of radioactive materials
Naturally occur
It is necessary to establish limiting concentrations for the
intake into the body.
The effect of human exposure to radiation @ radioactive
materials are HARMFUL and any unnecessary exposure
should be avoided.
The amount of radiation to which the individual is normally
exposed varies with the amount of background radioactivity.
Water with high radioactivity is not normal
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Origin of waste
Domestic sewage
Dairy industry
Yeast industry
Starch & glucose industry
Fruits & vegetable canning
industry
Textile industry
Pulp & paper industry
Beverage industry
* Rapid assessment for
industrial pollution
Tannery industry
5.3
125
13.4
12.5
Total Suspended
solids
“TSS” (kg/ton
product)
0.022
(kg/day/person)
2.2
18.7
9.7
4.3
30 - 314
4 - 130
2.5 - 220
48 - 86
55 - 196
11.5 - 26
1.3 - 257
85 - 155
Biochemical oxygen
demand
“BOD” (kg/ton product)
0.025 (kg/day/person)
Important contaminants of concern in industrial
wastewater treatment
Suspended solids
Nutrients
Priority pollutants
Suspended solids can lead to the development of
sludge deposits and anaerobic conditions when
untreated wastewater is discharged in the aquatic
environment.
Both nitrogen and phosphate, along with carbon,
are essential nutrients for growth. When
discharged to the aquatic environment, these
nutrients can lead to the growth of undesirable
aquatic life. When discharged in excessive
amounts on land, they can also lead to the
pollution of groundwater.
Organic and inorganic compounds selected on the
basis of their known or suspected carcinogenicity,
mutagenicity, teratogenicity, or high acute toxicity.
Many of these compounds are found in
wastewater.
Refractory organics
These organics tend to resist conventional
methods of wastewater treatment. Typical
examples include surfactants, phenols, and
agricultural pesticides.
Heavy metals
Heavy metals are usually discharged to
wastewater from commercial and industrial
activities and have to be removed if the
wastewater is to be reused.
Dissolved inorganics Inorganic constituents such as calcium,
sodium, and sulfate are added to the original
domestic water supply as a result of water use
and may have to be removed if the wastewater
is to be reused.
Origin of waste
pH
T.S.S,
mg/l
BOD,
mg/l
COD,
mg/l
TDS,
mg/l
O&G,
mg/l
一 Domestic Sewage
7
220
250
500
500
-
一 Dairy Industry
4
12150
14000
21100
19000
320
一 Yeast Industry
5.3
540
2100
3400
3500
9
一 Fruits & Vegetable
5.5
2200
800
1400
1270
94
6.5
1800
840
1500
17000
155
一 Pulp & Paper Industry
8
1640
360
2300
1980
-
一 Beverage Industry
9
760
620
1150
1290
-
一 Tannery Industry
10
2600
2370
4950
8500
115
11
565
890
2350
8218
290
Canning
一 Textile Industry
** Previous analysis
conducting in several
companies.
Fish Canning
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF GROUNDWATER & SURFACE WATER
Table 1.0 General characteristics of groundwater and surface water
GROUND
SURFACE
Constant composition
High mineralization
Little Turbidity
Low @ no color
Bacteriologically safe
No dissolved oxygen
High hardness
H2S, Fe, Mn
Varying composition
Low mineralization
High Turbidity
Color
Microorganisms Present
Dissolved oxygen
Low hardness
Tastes and odors
Possible chemical toxicity
Adapted from Davis and Cornwell, 2008
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
SURFACE WATER
Usually rainwater that
collects in surface water
bodies, like oceans, lakes, or
streams.
Another source groundwater that comes out
of the ground from springs.
Become polluted when
contaminants come into
direct contact and either
dissolve or physically mix
with the water.
GROUNDWATER
Water underneath the ground.
 Comes from rain water or water from surface water like
lakes or streams that soaks into the soil.
The water is stored underground in the tiny spaces
between rocks and soil grains and can move around within
the soil.
Groundwater contamination occurs when the water
comes into contact with contaminants.
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
CHARACTERISTICS
OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
 Industrial process generate a wide variety of wastewater pollutant.
 The characteristics and level of pollutants very significantly from industry to industry
Table 1.1 Example of industrial wastewater concentration for BOD5
and suspended solids (Davis and Cornwell,2008)
Industry
Ammunition
Fermentation
Slaughterhouse
(cattle)
Pulp and paper
(kraft)
Tannery
BOD5,mg/L
Suspended Solid,
mg/L
50-300
4,500
400-2,500
70-1,700
10,000
400-1,000
100-350
75-300
700-7,000
4,000-20,000
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to
damage an exposed organism.
Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism,
such as ;
•Animal
•Bacterium
•Plant
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
TYPES OF TOXICITY
PHYSICAL
-include things not usually thought of under the heading of "toxic" by
many people
-eg. direct blows, concussion, sound and vibration, heat and cold etc
CHEMICAL
-include inorganic substances such as lead, mercury, asbestos,
hydrofluoric acid, and chlorine gas
-also organic compounds such as methyl alcohol, most medications,
and poisons from living things.
BIOLOGICAL
-include those bacteria and viruses that are able to induce disease in
living organisms.
-can be complicated to measure because the "threshold dose" may be a
single organism.
-Theoretically one virus, bacterium or worm can reproduce to cause a
serious infection.
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
TOXICITY TEST
Toxicity test are used to;
Assess the suitability of environmental conditions for aquatic life
Establish acceptable receiving water concentrations for conventional
parameter such as DO, pH, temp. or turbidity.
Study the effects of water quality parameters on wastewater toxicity.
Determine the effectiveness of wastewater-treatment method.
Assess the degree of wastewater treatment needed to meet water
pollution control requirement.
Determines compliance with federal & state water quality standard
and water quality criteria.
Establish permissible effluent discharge rate
ERT 417/4 WASTE TREATMENT IN BIOPROCESS INDUSTRY
SEM 1 (2010/2011)
Such treatment should comply with the terms of the legislation defining the
characteristics of the effluent discharging in water streams.
The concept of planning and development should be based on the criteria to protect
land, water resources, aquatic life in streams and rivers and marine life from pollution
and to safeguard public health as a high priority.
The environmental inspection on wastewater treatment plants aims to support and
strengthen the Protection of both the environment and the public health, since the
pollution generated from the industrial establishments has a negative impact not only
on the environment, but also on the health of the individuals.
Therefore, it is noted that most of the procedures that could be implemented by
industrial establishments to reduce the negative environmental impacts, will also lead to
reducing the effects that present a threat to the health of workers within the plants and
the public living in regions affected by the various emissions from the plants.
In this respect, the effectiveness of the inspection on industrial wastewater treatment
plants will lead to the protection of the environment and the protection of workers and
public health.
THE END……
Thank You
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