Chapter 5 Ancient Greece

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Greek Art

Chapter 5

Geometric Period

Very typical of this period were large funerary vases designed to hold votive offerings

Decoration was primarily abstract forms, flat patterns, outlined shapes that represent various human forms in poses of anguish.

Repetition used.

Geometric & Orientalizing

After destruction of Mycenaean palaces, the bronze age disintegrated, loss of kings as powerful rulers. Also lost many art forms (how to construct tombs, citadels, frescoes, sculpt with stone) also lost writing and reading.

This was deemed the “Dark Age of Greece”

Depopulation

Poverty

Loss of contact with outside world

Geometric Krater, 740bce

Hero & Centaur, 750-730bce

Orientalizing Period

More and more attention being paid to the human form/body

This period was influenced by Eastern works being brought in for trade, as trade was on the rise. Borrowed motifs from

Egypt and Near East

MantiklosApollo, 700-680bce

Corinthian Black Figure Amphora with Animal Frieze 625-600bce

Athenian Agora, Hellenistic 600-BCE-150CE

Lady of Auxerre, 650-625bce

The 3 styles of Greek Sculpture

Archaic

: stiff body pose, feet together, and arms close to the body.

Classical: more lifelike body, more natural form with movement, calmness, appearance of the contrapposto pose

Hellenistic: evokes emotion, more lifelike detail, greater movement

Archaic Period

More sense of permanency, temples built of stone, not mud brick

The two orders were used (see handout)

Archaic statuary was usually life-size or larger, and painted. Most share an expression “archaic smile”. Possibly used to signify that the subject was still living.

Kore/Korai = female youth

Kouros/Kouroi = male youth

2 important differences between Archaic

Greek and Egyptian sculpture

Sculptures of men were unclothed

Sculptures were free from the stone in which they were carved

Kouros, 600bce

Moschophorus (Calf Bearer), 560bce

AnavyosKouros, 530bce

Kore, from Peplos, 530bce

Kore, from the Acropolis, 520-510bce

Doric Ionic

Doric & Ionic

DORIC v. IONIC

Doric Temples are found on Greek mainland.

Ionic Temples are found on the islands.

Athens is an exception, and you can find many Ionic temples, characteristics in their designs, especially on the Acropolis.

Any temple containing a caryatid, is considered Ionic.

Typical Greek Temple Plan

Temple of Hera I, 550bce

West pediment, Temple of Artemis, 600-580bce

Siphnian Treasury, Reconstruction

Drawing

Siphnian Treasury Frieze from North, 530bce

Vase Painting

Athens was the main location for the production of vases during the archaic period.

Black Figure technique used as well as red-figure technique

Kleitias & Ergotimos, Francios Vase, 570bce

Exekias, Ajax & Achilles Playing a Game, 530 bce

Andokides Painter, Ajax & Achilles Playing a Game 525-520bce

Niobides Krater, 460-450BCE

Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, 500BC

Restored view Temple of Aphaia

Dying Warrior, top (490 bce)west pediment of Temple Aphaia bottom (480 bce) east pediment of Temple Aphaia

Early Classical Period

Early 5 th century, Greek city states united to fight the Persian

Army, but defeat of Persians came after Athens was already destroyed

Architecture/Architectural

Structure

Pieces from this period represent a time of transition.

Temples more compact, columns more spaced out

Pediment Statuary is more life-size and displays a variety of movement and action

Temple of Hera II, (closely resemble

Temple of Zeus 470 BC) 460 BC

Seer, from Temple of Zeus pediment 470 BC

Athena, Herakles, Atlas with Apples from metopeTemple of Zeus, 470-465bce

Sculpture

New concern to render the human form in natural poses that illustrate how a human usually stands.

KritiosBoy, 480bce

Young Warrior from Riace, 460-450bce

Charioteer, 470bce

Zeus (or Poseidon?), 460-450bce

Myron, Diskobolos, 450bce

Polykleitos, Doryphorus, 450bce

Kresilas, Pericles, 429bce

Athens Acropolis Plan

Acropolis, restored view

Parthenon, 447-438bce

Phidias, Athena Parthenos (model)438bce

Lapith Fighting Centaur, 447-438bce

Helios, horses & Dionysus, pediment at Parthenon

Plaque of the Ergastines

Three Goddesses, east pediment of Parthenon), 438 bce

Horsemen, detail from procession, Parthenon, 447 bce

Propylaia, 437 bce

Erechtheion, Porch of Maidens (caryatids), 421-405bce

Porch of the Maidens

Temple of Athena Nike, 427bce

Nike Adjusting Her Sandal, 410bce

Achilles Painter, 440bce

Grave Stele of Hegeso, High Classical

Late Classical Period

Arts continued to flourish despite the defeat by Sparta.

Athens never regained their empire status. New art forms

(mosaics) flourished as well as new styles (tholos temple)

Praxiteles, Aphrodite, 350-340 bce

Praxiteles, Hermes and Infant Dionysos, 340bce

Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (The Scraper), 330bce

Lysippos, Weary Herakles, 320bce

Polykleitos’ Doryphorus vs. Apoxyomenos’The

Scraper

Hellenistic Period

Altar of Zeus, Pergamon

Athena battling Alkyoneos 175bce

Dying Gaul, Epigonos, 230bce

Nike Samothrace, 190bce

Venus de Milo 150-125 BC

Seated Boxer 100-50 BC

Old Market Woman, 150-100 BC

Laocoon sons

Athanadoros, Hagesandros& Polydorso, Head of Odysseus, 1 st century ce

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