Culture - The Business Community

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Module Three
Communication
and Culture
1
2
Culture: the lifestyle of a group
of people
 Culture:
a learned set of shared
interpretations about beliefs, values, and
norms which affect the behaviours of a
relatively large group of people.
 Co-cultures: coexist within the
mainstream society yet remain
connected to one another.
3
Culture
o
o
o
o
o
values
beliefs
artifacts
ways of behaving
ways of
communicating
o
o
o
o
o
language
ways of thinking
art
laws
religion
4
Intercultural Communication
the process of learning one’s
culture from one generation to another
 Enculturation:
the process by which a person’s
culture is modified through direct contact
with or exposure to another culture
 Acculturation:
Intercultural
Communication: between
people of different cultures; influenced by
enculturation and acculturation which can
create barriers
5
Your Turn
 Complete
Test Yourself: How Ethnocentric
Are You? In your EZ Guide
We all tend to see others and their
behaviours through our own cultural
filters and think our culture is better than
other cultures in every way.
Ethnocentrism
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7
Barriers to Understanding Each
Other
 Stereotypes:


generalizations about a group of people
that oversimplify the group’s characteristics;
Exaggerated beliefs to make judgments
about an entire group of people
8
Stereotypes
 are
a fixed impression of a group of
people
 may be influenced by nationality, religion,
sexual orientation, or any other
characteristic that defines a group
 distort accurate perceptions
 prevent seeing someone as an individual

Stereotype the following groups:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Women drivers
Jocks
Blacks
Gays and lesbians
Jews
Francophones
3-9
 Stereotype
the other group
 Stereotype
each person in your
group
3-10
11
Barriers to Understanding Each
Other
 Prejudice


Positive or negative attitudes about an
individual or cultural group based on little
or no direct experience with that person or
group
Making a judgment about someone before
you get to know that person and learn
whether your opinions and feelings are
justified
12
Barriers to Understanding Each
Other
 Discrimination


How we act out and express prejudice
Exclude groups of people from
opportunities granted to others
13
Barriers to Understanding Each
Other
 Racism



Emerges from ethnocentrism, stereotyping,
prejudice, and discrimination
Racist people assume that a person with a
certain inherited characteristic also has
negative characteristics and abilities; they
believe in the superiority of their own race
above others
Can lead to the abuse of power
14
Understanding Cultural
Diversity
 Social


identity
Our self-concept as derived from the social
categories to which we see ourselves
belonging
Part of social identity is derived from the
cultural groups to which you belong as well
as the groups to which you do not belong
15
Understanding Cultural
Diversity
 To
understand cultural diversity you should
first understand your own culture then
broaden your mind to understand other
cultures

Religion is a very important aspect of a
culture; in many countries and for many
groups, religion is the culture; occasionally
when religious groups attempt to practice
their culture in a secular country, they
encounter intolerance
16
Understanding Cultural
Diversity
 Regardless
of your individual religious
beliefs, you must remember that people
feel strongly about their religion, and that
difference between religious beliefs and
practices do matter
17
Understanding Cultural
Diversity
 We
live in a pluralistic society; the more
knowledge you gain about the people
around you and the more you learn to
respect others, the better you will be able
to communicate
 Your willingness and ability to work in a
diverse environment will likely increase
your opportunities for success in any
career choice you make
18
The Dimensions of Culture
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Individualism/Collectivism
Power Distance
Masculine/Feminine
Values
High/Low Context
Monochronic/Polychronic
19
The Dimensions of Culture
 Intercultural
dimension: an aspect of
culture that can be measured relative to
other cultures
20
Your Turn
 Complete
Test Yourself – How
Individualistic Are You? In your EZ Guide
21
The Dimensions of Culture
 Individualism/Collectivism
may be the
most important factor distinguishing one
culture from another
Individualistic
Culture
-You are responsible for yourself and
perhaps your immediate family; you are
responsible to your own conscience:
independence
Collectivist
Culture
-You are responsible for the entire
group; responsibility is largely an individual
matter: interdependence
22
The Dimensions of Culture
 Power
Distance: refers to the physical and
psychological distance between those who
have power and those who do not in
relationships, institutions, and organizations


High Power Distance: individuals accept
differences in power as normal; accepted that
the privileged have more power and us it to
control lives of those with less power; you
accept and do not challenge authority
Low Power Distance: power distinctions are
minimized: supervisors work with subordinates
23
The Dimensions of Culture
 Masculine/Feminine
Values: the terms
masculine and feminine are used to
describe whether masculine or feminine
traits are valued by a culture; the terms are
used to describe a societal perspective
rather than individuals
A
masculine culture: typically views men as
assertive, tough, oriented to material success
and strong; women modest, tender, oriented
to maintaining quality of life
A feminine culture: both men and women
are supposed to be modest, tender and
oriented to maintaining the quality of life
24
The Dimensions of Culture
 High/Low
Context:

High-context culture: very little meaning is
expressed through words; gestures, silence,
facial expressions and relationships among
communicators have higher meaning; also
through status (age, gender, education,
family, etc.)

Low-context culture: meaning is expressed
primarily through language
25
Intercultural Communication
Strategies
1)
2)
Recognize and reduce your ethnocentrism
Be mindful: involves being fully aware of the
present moment without making hasty judgements;
mindlessness occurs when you allow rigid categories
and false distinctions to become habits of thought
and behaviour
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Face fears
Avoid over-attribution
Identify uncertainty and ambiguity
Be receptive to new information
Respect others’ perspectives
8) Recognize differences
-between yourself and culturally
different people
-within the culturally different group
8) Recognize meaning differences in verbal &
nonverbal messages
9) Recognize culture shock
Strategies continued
26
Stages of Culture Shock
Honeymoon
Fascination with new culture
Crisis
Differences between your own culture
and the new one creates problems
Recovery
Gain the skills to function effectively
Adjustment
Adjust and come to enjoy the new culture
Recognize That Culture
Shock Is Normal
27
Adjust Your Communication
 Learn
the other culture’s signals; avoid violating
cultural rules
 Share
your own system of signals with others
 Avoid
evaluating differences negatively: see
others as different but equal
28
29
Your Turn
 Complete
Guide
Check Your Ability: in your EZ
30
Thanks for coming!
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