Sports NutritionWhat Athletic Trainers Need to Know. BY WANDA M. KOSZEWSKI, PHD, RD, LRD, FAND ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR NUTRITION AND DIETETICS Objectives for Presentation At the end of this session the participants will be able to: 1. Identify which energy nutrient is critical to athletic performance and why 2. Explain the importance of water and energy drinks in relations to performance 3. Explain the relationship between food and supplements when it comes to athletic performance. How much do athletes know about nutrition? 61% believed that protein is the main source of energy; only 3% knew correct daily recommendation. 71% disagreed that sport drinks are better than water for replacing fluids. 65% believed that vitamin/mineral supplements increase energy levels. <30% could give recommended dietary intake for carbohydrates and fats CHO-The Energy Nutrient Carbohydrate (CHO) is the most important nutrient for you as an athlete not protein. Need at least enough CHO in your diet to replenish glycogen in your muscles that you are working. Need to ensure enough CHO is eaten prior to exercise to spare muscle glycogen CHO is the fuel that makes the body go Stored Energy Carbohydrates ◦ Muscle ◦ Liver ◦ Blood Fueled Muscle Blood Sugar Feed Brain Fat ◦ Adipose Tissue Fuel muscle ◦ Intramuscular Fuel muscle 70,000 kcals 1,500 kcals 1,400 calories 320 calories 80 calories Glycogen Is Made From Carbohydrate 25 GLYCOGEN CONTENT 20 15 (GM/KG MUSCLE) 10 5 0 Rest/ 5 Hard exercise 15 25 35 45 hours 5 days RECOVERY TIME Carbohydrate diet Protein & Fat diet Glycogen Depletion With Repeated Exercise 2.5 2 MUSCLE GLYCOGEN 1.5 (GM/100GM TISSUE) 1 0.5 0 Ten miles Ten miles Ten miles Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Glycemic Index It is a relative measure of the extent to which blood glucose increases after ingesting a food containing 50 g of CHO. Fruits and vegetables have a lower glycemic index due to their fiber content. Not based on mix diets. Carbohydrate and Recovery After hard exercise eat .5 gms CHO/lb BW ◦ As soon as tolerable ◦ Usually 0-1 hour post exercise ◦ Sports drink ◦ Juice ◦ Yogurt ◦ At next meal ◦ Usually 1-3 hours post exercise Recovery Carbohydrates For 24 hour period 400-500 grams Pre competition 150-300 grams (3-4 hours before competition) Weight (lbs) ◦ 100 ◦ 150 ◦ 200 CHO (grams) 50 75 100 Good CHO Sources These Food have 15 grams of CHO 1 slice of bread (whole wheat, whole grain, etc.) 1 6-inch tortilla ½ cup of corn, peas, potatoes 1/3 cup of rice (brown or whole grain) 3 cups of popcorn 1 Small apple, peach or 2 tangerines 15 grapes ½ medium bake potato or sweet potato 2 Tablespoons raisins 3 cups green beans 1 ¼ cup of milk or yogurt Protein It’s primary function is not for energy Building and Maintenance If not enough adequate carbohydrate then the body will breakdown body proteins for energy. Fat breakdown builds ketones Protein Needs Current RDA 0.4 grams/pound Recreational exerciser 0.5-75 Competitive athlete 0.6-.90 Growing teen athlete .9-1.0 Adult building muscle .7-.9 Athlete restricting cals .8-1.0 Daily Protein Recommendations Type of Athlete Sedentary Strength/Power Endurance Athlete Daily Grams of Protein/kg BW .8g/kg Percentage of Total Calories 12-15% 1.4-1.7 g/kg or .6 15-20% to .8 grams per pound 1.2-1.8 g/kg 12-18% To Build Muscle Extra exercise Average Protein Intake Extra Calories from CHO Rest Fats and Lipids Fat is the largest storage form of energy in the body Body fat is stored in the adipose tissue and in the muscle Ideal for athletes to tap into their fat stores during exercise to delay depleting glycogen Choose healthy fats like olives, olive or canola oil, nuts, nut butters, avocado Fat as a Fuel Need CHO to use fat as a fuel Mixture of CHO and Fat depends on: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Intensity and duration of exercise Fitness Level Diet composition CHO intake before and after exercise Diet Composition Carbohydrate Fat Protein 50-70% of total kcals 15-30% of total kcals 12-20% of total kcals Henry’s Diet 6’, 230 lbs, running back 3 eggs, Fried 3 slices wheat toast 10 oz 2% milk 10 oz OJ 3 cups pasta chicken parm (2 breasts) Club sub sandwich, 12 inch with mayo Small Dr. Pepper 10 ounce chicken breast, broiled 6 oz mash potatoes 1/2 cup gravy 1/2 PB Sandwich with Jelly Nutrient Analysis on Henry 4558 kcals 316 g protein What changes do you think Henry needs to make in his diet? 476 g CHO 1275 mg cholesterol 42% kcals from CHO 30% kcals from fat 28% kcals from protein What would your recommendation be to Henry? Fluids Most overlooked Effects performance more than any other nutrient Athletes have serious health problems or die each year due to poor fluid intake Fluids Cool fluids are best (40-50 degrees). Plain water, sports drinks and diluted juices that have 4-8% CHO concentration adequately replace fluid for most athletes. Don’t depend on thirst. Fluids Weigh before and after and athletic event. Replace 2 cups fluid for every 1 pound lost. Sip water or dilute fluids (<20 grams of CHO per cup) during competition or training. Fluid Replacement Drink 2 cups of cool water about 2 hours before competition or training. Follow this by drinking up to 2 cups fluid 15 minutes before an event. Drink 4-6 ounces of cool fluid every 10-15 minutes during competition or workout. Fluid Replacement After competition or workout, weight and replace every pound of lost weight Avoid the following beverages ◦ Caffeine containing ◦ Alcohol Supplements Creatinine Amino acids Glucosamine sulfate Pyruvate HMB Weight gainers Other Nutrients Needed by Most Athletes Vitamins ◦ Vitamin D Minerals ◦ Magnesium ◦ Calcium ◦ Potassium Ergogenic Aid Anything that enhances a person’s ability to perform work or perform better. Athletes use it to gain competitive edge NCAA reported that 43.5% of athletes surveyed reported taking supplements. Reasons were for their health, improve strength/power or to increase muscle Performance Plate Whole grains or energy enhancing foods Lean Protein or recovery/muscle building foods Fruits and Vegetables or antioxidant-rich foods Fat or immunity/flavor boosting foods Fluids or hydration promoting beverages Nutrition and Female Athlete Nutritional problems female athletes have: ◦ Poor calcium intake ◦ Iron deficiency anemia ◦ Folic acid intake ◦ Calories and wt control ◦ Fear of fat Calcium and Iron Women must have adequate calcium in their diets up to the age of 30. However, most American women do not meet the RDA for calcium (over 60%). Women do not eat enough iron rich foods in their diet. Most American women can not meet the RDA for iron of 15 mg/day. Folic Acid Helps prevent neural tube defects Recommendation is all women of child bearing years consume 400 ug of folic acid per day Pregnant women need 600 ug per day Weight Control Most female athletes do not meet their caloric needs for a day More American women are dieting There is a reported increase in the number of disordered eating behaviors Questions???