Psychology Midterm study guide Learning Objectives Describe the

Psychology Midterm study guide
Learning Objectives
1. Describe the growth of scientific psychology from its early pioneers to contemporary
2. Describe psychology’s current perspectives, and identify key subfields
3. Identify four big ideas that run throughout psychology
4. Explain how hindsight bias and overconfidence can make research finding seem like
common sense
5. Explain how the elements of the scientific attitude make scientific inquiry so useful.
6. Describe how psychological theories guide scientific research
7. Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation. Explain the
importance of random sampling.
8. Describe positive and negative correlations. Explain how correlation measures can aid
the process of prediction but not provide evidence of cause-effect relationships
9. Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect, focusing on the
characteristics of experimentation that make this possible.
10. Explain why psychologists study animals, and discuss the ethics of experimentations
with both animals and humans.
11. Describe how personal values can influence psychologists’ research and its application,
and discuss psychology’s potentials to manipulate people.
12. Explain why psychologists concerned with human biology
13. Describe the parts of the neurons
14. Explain how nerve cells communicate
15. Describe how neurotransmitters influence mood and behavior, and explain how drugs
and other chemicals affect neurotransmitters.
16. Identify the two major divisions of the nervous system, describe their basic functions
17. Describe the techniques for studying the brain.
18. Describe the functions other the parts of the brain
19. Identify the four lobes of the brain
20. Describe the functions of the motor cortex, the sensory cortex, and the association area.
21. Define consciousness and discuss how our perceptions are directed by selective
22. Describe the cycle of our circadian rhythm and the stages of sleep.
23. Describe the theories of why we need sleep
24. Identify the major sleep disorders
25. Describe the most common content of dreams, and compare the five major
perspectives on why we dream.
26. Identify the areas of change that developmental psychologist study
27. Identify the three major issues in developmental psychology
28. Describe conception, and define chromosomes, DNA, gene, genome, nothing how they
29. Describe the abilities and traits of a newborn
30. Explain how twin and adoption studies help us understand the effects of nature and
31. Describe developmental changes in brain and motor abilities during infancy and
32. Outline Piagets four stages of cognitive development
33. Explain how the bonds of attachment form between parents and infants
34. Indentify the primary parenting styles and assess their impact on development.
35. Describe adolescents’ reasoning abilities and moral development.
36. Identify Eriksson stages of psychosocial development.
37. Discuss gender similarities and differences in psychological traits
38. Explain how biological sex is determined and describe the role of sex hormones in
biological development and gender differences
39. Discuss the importance of gender roles
40. Summarize the current views on sexuality
41. Discuss how evolutionary psychologists use natural selection to explain human sexuality
and behavior