Just to refresh your memory… Biosphere You are here Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organism A large geographical area that is characterized by its climate and the flora (plants) & fauna (animals) that live in there. A biome contains related ecosystems. For example: the temperate deciduous forest biome contains ecosystems in the tree-tops, the forest floor, and mid-canopy. 3. Temperate Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest (aka: Taiga, Boreal Forest) Tropical Rainforest 4. Temperate Grassland 1. 2. 6. Savanna (Tropical Grassland) Desert 7. Tundra (Polar & Alpine) 5. Temp. Grassland This is where we live! Well…not actually in the forest. That’d be camping. Location: Mid-latitudes (between the poles and the tropics) Precipitation Yearly Avg: 75-125cm (29.5-49 inches) Temperature Summer Avg: 28⁰c (82⁰f) Winter Avg.: 6⁰c (43⁰f) Not too hot…not too cold There are seasons here! Flora Oaks, Maples, Hickory, Beech, Poplar, Sweetgum, and other decid. trees. Woody shrubs, flowers, ferns, mosses. Fauna Mammals (deer, bear, raccoon, squirrel) Birds Reptiles, Amphibians, and Inverts. Temp. Decid. Forests Coniferous Forest (aka: Taiga, Boreal Forest) • Lots and lots of pine trees! Get it pine cone…coniferous? Of course you do…you’re smart like dat Location: Northern hemisphere. High latitudes near the poles. Relatively unpopulated. Precipitation Yearly Avg: 35-75cm (14- 29.5 inches) Temperature Summer Avg: 14⁰c (57⁰f) Winter Avg.: -10⁰c (14⁰f) Cold winters…cool summers. Flora Pines, firs, spruce (all cone bearing) are dominant here. Fauna Mammals (wolf, lynx, bobcat, weasels, rabbit, squirrel, deer, elk) Birds-migratory Inverts. Coniferous Forest Tropical Rainforest • Greatest diversity of any land biome. “Come for our venomous snakes…stay for the oppressive humidity!” Leave your winter jacket at home…bring your malaria kit. Location: Equatorial...ummm…near the equator. Soil is nutrient poor…it’s all in the plants! Precipitation Yearly Avg: up to 125-660 cm (50- 260 inches). Greatest ppt. of any biome! Temperature No Seasons. It’s near the equator…think about it! Night: 20⁰c (68⁰f) Day:34⁰c (93⁰f) Flora All types of trees, vines, flowers. There really is no dominant species like in the other types of forests. Fauna Mammals: depends which TRF, but…Jaguars, monkeys, tapirs, sloths, rodents. Lots of reptiles and amphibians. Birds-colorful, vocal, fruit-eating. Insects: the largest group in this biome. Tropical Rain Forest Temperate Grassland • There are a few. The Steppes of Asia, The US Prairies, and Las Pampas de Argentina…that’s Spanish for the Pampas of Argentina. Location: Mid-latitudes. Interior of continents. Rolling hills with few trees. Precipitation Yearly Avg: up to 25-75 cm (10- 29.5 inches). Usually there only dormant (colder) and growing (warmer) seasons. Temperature Avg Summer: 30⁰c (86⁰f) Avg Winter: 0⁰c (32⁰f) Flora Grasses and flowers. Very few trees. Fauna Mammals: bison, antelope, coyotes, wolves, Reptiles. Birds-seed and insect-eating. Insects and other inverts. Sea anemones…just making sure you’re payin’ attention. Temperate Grassland Tropical Grassland(Savanna) •Rolling grassy terrain (like prairies). Clumps of trees here and there. •A long dry season and a rainy season. Loaction Found north and south of the Equator, on the edges of TRF’s. Africa, India, & S. America. Precipitation Yearly Avg: 150 cm (59 inches). Usually there only dormant (colder) and growing (warmer) seasons. Temp: Dry Season: 34⁰c (93⁰f) Avg Winter: 16⁰c (61⁰f) Flora Grasses and flowers. Very few trees. In Africa…acacia trees. Fauna Mammals: Lions, cheetah, wildebeest, zebra, antelope, giraffe…those are all African Savannah. Reptiles. Birds-seed and insect-eating. Insects and other inverts. Unicorns and talking fish…checking again. Tropical Grassland Tundra •From the Finnish word for barren land. •Fairly low diversity with simple food chains. •As dry or even drier than deserts! Location -High, middle, and low Arctic zones. -Alpine: northern hemisphere at high elevation Precipitation <10 inches (25 cm) per year. Temp: Avg. Summer: 12⁰c (54⁰f) Avg. Winter: <O⁰c (>32⁰f) Flora Shrubs, dwarf trees, grasses, lichen, mosses, liverwort, angiosperms (flowering plants). Fauna Birds: ptarmigan, grouse, migratory birds Mammals: polar bear, wolves, foxes, lemmings, caribou, arctic hares, squirrels, marmot, pikas, mtn goat, sheep elk. Insects, some fish…that’s about it. Hot Deserts •Hot fudge sundaes…apple pie…oh…deserts! That’s cool…I knew that. •Greatest daily differential of any biome. Very hot days and cold nights. Location -Under zones of high atmospheric pressure -West coasts of continents between 20° and 30° latitude -Rainshadows of high mountain ranges & interiors of continents. Precipitation <10 inches (25 cm) per year. Temp: Day: 38⁰c (>100⁰f) Night: 7⁰c (45⁰f) Flora Shrubs w/small leaves, spines, or thorns are dominant (evergreen or deciduous). Shallow but extensive root systems to max. rainwater xerophytes-adapted to tolerate extreme drought. Phreatophytes-plants with long taproots. Succulents-like cacti. Fauna Rodents and some larger mammals, reptiles, birds, insects and other inverts. Behavioral Adaptations: living underground (fossorial), noctornal (active at night), crepuscular (dawn and dusk). Physical Adaptations: long ears, concentrated urine, no sweat glands, fat deposits.