Review for the Final You’ve been a great group… I’m going to miss you. I showed you one example of a functioning sustainable society/ group (the Mexican fishing/ whale watching co-op). Here’s another: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVL0Ku6iodM and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejP1VflTZ4A. There’s also lots of stuff on YouTube about sustainable cities in Europe – particularly, Denmark, Germany, and Sweden. Today, we will review for the exam. Courtesy of a former student: Proposals for cleaning up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch: http://www.theoceancleanup.com/ Woman who has lived trash-free for two years: http://www.collectiveevolution.com/2014/11/23/she-hasnt-madeany-trash-in-2-years-this-is-what-her-life-islike/ The final is in this building, Room 107, on Wednesday the 16th from 1 to 4. Be there on time. The exam will be a mix of short answers and essay questions. For the essays especially, the answers will be evaluated based on how thoroughly you answer the questions (I will indicate minimum lengths), on how coherently and wellstructured your answers are, the originality of your analysis where that is called for and, to a much less degree, on the quality and legibility of your hand-writing. The exam will cover the material from Chapters 12 to 23, even those that were not covered extensively in class, and to a lesser degree key concepts from the first couple of weeks. Key concepts like: carrying capacity, limits to growth, ecological footprint, full world, feedback cycles (positive and negative, and examples of each), demographic transition. Difference between environmental scientists and environmentalists. Threats to ocean and freshwater ecology. Major users of, and threats to availability of, fresh water. The sources of air pollution in different parts of the world and its effects. The nature and sources of climate change, why it is a major threat, and how it ties in with a system of feedback loops. What caused the ozone layer to thin out. Different kinds of fossil fuels, their benefits and impacts. The concept of peak oil and why it’s a tricky concept. Alternative conventional fuels, both fossil and others. Renewable forms of energy, and their strengths and limitations. The nature of the waste stream in Canada and the U.S. and what can and is being done about it. The role of planned obsolescence in promoting waste. The negative impacts of plastics on the environment. Why cities are both part of the problem of sustainability and potentially part of the solution. Definition and origin of urban sprawl. What the movements ‘smart growth’ and ‘new urbanism’ are about. Why moving away from automobile dependence towards other forms of transportation and mixed land use is so crucial to making cities more sustainable. What ethics has to do with our current ecological crisis. The difference between anthropocentrism, biocentrism, and ecocentrism. Places in the world where anthropocentrism is being challenged. In what sense is the current economy both circular and linear? The conflict between conventional economic perspectives and ecological perspectives. The notion of (currently) unpriced ecosystem services and externalities. Why Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is not necessary an accurate reflection of social well-being. What is traditional knowledge? Examples of environmental policies. Key elements of environmental policies – for instance, at universities like VIU. Different approaches to environmental policies. Different strategies for changing institutions in a more sustainable direction (not limited to what we discussed in class). Different strategies for changing individuals/ households in a more sustainable direction (not limited to what we discussed in class). What are some positive things being done in different parts of the world (i.e. where is environmental leadership being shown) to move us in a more sustainable direction? Have a great holiday break!